34 terms

Music

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Dynamics
Volume or intensity of tone

Loudly (forte)
Softly (piano)
Harmony
Two or more tones played simultaneously that support the melody
Pitch
Hearing a note and reproducing it vocally or with an instrument

Produce vibrations in the air: faster, higher the note

Intonation: whether pitch is played in tune, sharp (higher) or flat (lower)
Rhythm
Pattern through time

Measured in units and organized by sets of patterns
Tempo
Pace of the beat

Speed at which composer desires his composition to be performed

Beats per minute

Italian terms for tempo

- Presto: very fast
- Allegro: fast
- Moderato: moderate
- Adaigo: slow
- Largo: very slow
Tone
Sound produced by individual or instrument
Timbre
"Tamber"

Unique tonal quality of musical sound. Tone "color": bright, shrilll, brittle, light, dull, harsh, forceful, dark
Chamber music
Music played by 1-20 performers
Chord
Several notes sounded together
Consonance
Combination of tones that produce quality of relaxation
Dissonance
Combo of tones that produce tension
Fugue
Based on a short theme called a subject

Contains melodic and rhythmic motifs

Opening of a fugue is one voice. Second voice restates on a different scale. Then third and fourth voice enter
Lied
German song
Lyre
Ancient harp
Motif
Recurring group of notes
Movement
Large section of lengthy composition
Opera
Drama sung to an orchestral accompaniment
Opus
A work identified by a number
Oratorio
Major orchestral piece with solo voices and chorus
Rondo
Musical form whose main feature is return of main theme, alternates w secondary theme

Ex)

Simple rondo: ABABA
Second rondo: ABACA
Third Rondo: ABACABA
Sonata
Multi movement instrumental work for solo keyboard
Syncopation
Rhythmic effect produced when expected rhythmic pattern is deliberately upset
Clef
Symbol at the beginninf of the staff, indicates pitch or range sound should be played

Treble clef: higher notes

Bass clef: lower notes
Measure and Bar lines
Measure formed by bar lines (vertical lines), contains a set number of beats determined by time signature
Note values
Each note has a specific duration represented by solid black line or hollow oval shape
Time Signature or Meter
Meter: way to measure rhythmic units

Top number denotes number of beats in a measure, bottom denotes what type of note
Scale
Succession of notes arranged in ascending order.

7 of 12 pitches named after alphabet
6 Categories of Instruments
1. String
2. Woodwind
3. Brass
4. Percussion
5. Keyboard
6. Electronic

Symphony orchestras have 4:
1. String
2. Woodwind
3. Brass
4. Percussion
Middle Age/Medieval (500-1400)
Historical themes: spread of Christianity, development in Europe, Crusades

Music style/elements:

Monophonic style: one melodic line and no accompaniment of Roman Catholoc Church

Just pitch of tones, notated rhythm added at the end

Polyphonic style (two or more melodic lines)

Chromatic scale (octaves of twelve notes)
Renaissance Era (1400-1600)
Historical theme: end of feudalism, concept of humanism, rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman culture

Instrumental dance music developed: keyboard

Music style/elements: polyphonic emphasis on harmony (two or more notes are sounded simultaneous as in chord), scred, secular
Baroque Era (1600-1750)
Historical themes: scientific investigation

Music style/elements: heavily ornate, technique of combining several melodic lines into meaningful whole, emphasis on contrast and volume, theme and variation (recurring patterns)

Developments: opera, orchestra, ballet, sonata
Classical Era (1750-1820)
Historical themes: Industrial Revolution, Age of Reason and Enlightment

Orchestra gained in importance; increasing flutes and oboes, string and wind sections developed, trombones introduced, refinement of sonata

Elegance and courtly grace (minuet developed as dance style)

Classical style: simpler textures and melodies, expansion of textures, melodies, variations, and homophony (single melodic line + accompaniment)

Mozart, Beethoven
Romantic Period (1820-1900)
Historical period: Rise of European nationalism, new social order, visual arts, poetry, drama

Chopin

Melody prominent, folk music used to express cultural identity

Genres: Symphonic poem (orchestral work that portrayed a story), concert overture, introduction of dissonance to create emotion
Modern Era (1900)
Rebellion, unique sounds

Technology allowed for mass appeal (sound recordings, electronically created sounds, computer music)

Polytonality