Upgrade to remove ads
Lecture 11 Study Questions
Terms in this set (99)
primary information/communication cell of nervous system
structural support and nutrition for neurons, remove debris, increase the speed of nerve impulses
synapse of the axon and a muscle spindle
stimulus--afferent neuron--efferent neuron--reaction; does not require processing in brain
sequence of events after axon is severed; myelin sheath shrinks/disintegrates, axon disintegrates/disappears, myelin sheath reforms into schwann cell columns between cut and effector organ
electrical signal related to charge across a membrane
fast conduction; in neurons, results from myelin sheath (thicker myelin--faster conduction; larger diameter axon--faster conduction)
nucleus in the peripheral nervous system
myelin covered process takes signals away from soma; in motor, away from CNS; in sensory, toward CNS
process that brings signals to soma
soma; contains the nucleus
What is the function of neuroglial cells?
structure and support of neurons
What are 5 types of neuroglia?
astrocytes; ependymal; microglia; oligodendocytes; Schwann cells
Where are astrocytes?
wrap around vessels, compose blood-brain barrier
What do oligodendocytes do?
deposit myelin within CNS
What do microglia do?
remove debris in CNS; are antigen presenting cells for CNS; macrophages
Where are ependymal cells?
line CSF-filled cavities
What is another name for Schwann cells?
What do Schwann cells (neurolemma) do?
form myelin sheath in PNS
What are the 3 structural classifications of neurons?
pseudounipolar, bipolar, multipolar
Describe pseudounipolar neurons:
1 process off cell body that splits; one end acts as dendrite, one as axon
What neuron is an example of pseudounipolar?
Describe bipolar neurons:
2 processes off cell body; 1 axon, 1 dendrite
What neurons are typically bipolar?
special sensory cells (smell, taste, etc)
Describe multipolar neurons:
many process off cell body; 1 axon, many dendrites
What neurons are typically multipolar?
What structural type of neuron is most common?
What are the 3 functional type of neurons?
motor, sensory, association
Motor neurons are ______ neurons.
What does efferent mean?
EXIT the nervous system
Sensory neurons are _____ neurons.
What does afferent mean?
AWAY from the stimulus
Association neurons are ____ neurons.
What are interneurons?
neurons that communicate information between neurons
What are the 5 cortical areas (lobes) of the brain?
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, 2 Temporal lobes
What 4 functional areas are in the frontal lobe?
Prefrontal, Premotor area, Primary motor area, Broca's speech
What is the function of the prefrontal area?
goal-oriented, short-term recall, elaboration of thought, inhibit limbic system
What is the function of the premotor area?
What is the function of the primary motor area?
send impulse to move
What is the function of Broca's area? Which hemisphere is it typically located?
motor speech area
What are the functional areas of the parietal lobe?
sensory (primary and association), taste
What are the functional areas of the occipital lobe?
Vision (primary and association)
What are the functional areas of the temporal lobes?
Smell, Auditory (primary and association), Wernicke's area
What is the function of Wernicke's area?
sensory speech area
Where is the auditory section of the temporal lobes?
superior portion, extends deep into lateral sulcus
What are the layers of meninges, in order from skull to brain?
Dura Mater (periosteal layer & meningeal layer), Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater
What is the space between the skull and periosteal layer called?
What is the space between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater called?
What is the space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater called?
What space contains the CSF?
What space is anesthesia injected for regional?
What are the components of a reflex arc?
stimulus, affterent, efferent, reaction; knee-jerk; or pull hand away from hot surface before realize it's hot
Where is CSF synthesized?
Choroid plexus in lateral/3rd/4th ventricles
Where is CSF reabsorbed?
arachnoid villa in the subarachnoid space
What is the narrowest ventricle in the CSF cistern?
What is the most likely spot for obstructive hydrocephaly?
Starting in the lateral ventricles, trace the path of CSF back to venules.
Lateral ventricle, foramen of monroe, 3rd ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, 4th ventricle, foramina of Luschka to pontine cisterns or foramen of Magendie to cerebellomedullary cistern, subarachnoid space of brain/spinal cord, arachnoid villi, venous sinus, venules
What are the 2 locations CSF can flow after the 4th ventricle (both end up in subarachnoid space)?
Foramina of Luschka to pontine cisterns; foramen of Magendie to cerebellomedullary cistern
What vessels compose the circle of willis?
Anterior/Posterior Communicating, Internal Carotids, Posterior Cerebral arteries
Why is the circle of willis important?
collateral blood flow in event of occlusion
Where does an upper motor neuron become a lower motor neuron?
Anterior horn cell
Where does the motor tract cross contralaterally?
pyramid in inferior medulla
Which type of motor neuron exists only in CNS? (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron has a cell body in CNS, but sends axons to PNS? (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron can be contra- or ipsilateral? (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron can be only ipsilateral? (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron damage causes spastic paralysis? (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron damage causes flaccid paralysis/ (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron damage causes hypertonia and hyperreflexia? (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron damage causes hypotonia and hyporeflexia? (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron damage has a positive Babinski sign?
Which type of motor neuron damage has a negative Babinski sign?
CVA, tumors, head trauma typically cause what type of motor neuron to be damaged?
Poliomyelitis, AHC injury, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury typically cause what type of motor neuron to be damaged?
Which type of motor neuron damage has fasciculations and fibrillations? (upper/lower)
Which type of motor neuron damage will have positive superficial reflexes (abdominal, skin with tickle)? (upper/lower)
Which ANS has short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers?
Which ANS has long preganglionic fibers and short postganglionic fibers?
Which ganglionic fiber is myelinated, pre or post?
Which ANS is craniosacral?
Which ANS is thoracolumbar?
Which ANS fiber uses norepinephrine at the synapse?
Which ANS fiber uses acetylcholine at the synapse?
Parasympathetic pre/post ganglionic, sympathetic preganglionic
Which neurotransmitter in the ANS is cholinergic?
Which neurotransmitter in the ANS is adrengergic?
What are the 2 neurotransmitters used in synapses with the ANS?
Sympathetic nervous system is colloquially :
Parasympathetic nervous system is colloquially:
rest/digest (and SEX!)
What is the primary function of the parasympathetic?
conserve and restore energy
What is the primary function of the sympathetic?
mobilize energy stores in times of need
What are the 3 ways Sympathetic NS terminates preganglionic fibers?
Directly on organ (adrenal medulla); Sympathetic chain (thoracic cavity); collaterally (abdominal cavity)
As age, what happens to number of neurons? brain weight/size?
As age, what happens to the gyri/sulci?
gyri smaller, sucli larger
with aging, is the brain more/less fibrous? plastic?
What happens to the size of ventricles with aging?
What happens to gray matter with aging?
With aging, at the cellular level, what happens to myelin? lipofuscin?
Senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and lewy bodies appear with:
What are 3 functional changes that occur with aging?
memory impaired; decreased sensory; sleep disturbance
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Upper/Lower motor neuron Lesions
upper and lower motor neurons and motor homunculus
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Alterations of Renal & Urinary Tract Function
Lecture 1 Study Questions
The Cellular Environment: Fluid/Electrolytes
The Cellular Environment: Fluid/Electrolytes