103 terms

AP Human "The Cultural Landscape" definitions

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abiotic
composed of nonliving or inorganic matter
accultuaration
the process of change in culture that result from the meeting of two groups , each of which retains distinct culture features
assimilation
the process by which a groups cultural features are alterd to resemble those of another more dominant group
atmosphere
the thing layer of gases surrounding Earth
bhavioural geograph
the study of the psychological basis for individual human actions in space
biosphere
all living organisms on Earth, including plants and animals, as well as microrganisms
biotic
composing of living organisms
cartography
the science of making maps
citizen science
scientific research by ameatuer scientists
climate
the long-term average weather condition at a particular location
concentration
the spread of something over a given area
connection
the relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
contagious diffusion
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
cultural ecoogy
a geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
cultural landscape
an approach to geography that emphasizes the realationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
culture
the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constituate a group's disticnt tradtions
density
the frequency with which something exists within a given untit of area
diffusion
the process of the spread of a feature or trend from one place to another
distance decay`
the diminished importance and eventual disappearance of phenomena with increasing distance from its origin
distribution
the arragnment of something across earths surface
ecology
the scientific study of ecosystems
ecosystem
a group of living organisms and abiotic spheres with which they interact
environmental determination
a nineteenth and early twentieth century apporach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive process
formal region/uniform region
an area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
funional region/ nodal region
an area organized around a node or focal point
GIScience
the development and analysis of data about earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
GIS
a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
geotagging
identification and storage of a piece of information by its precise latitude and longitude coordinates
GPS
a system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
globilization
actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Meant Time (GMT)
the time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian
hearth
the region from which innovative ideas originatie
hierarchical diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to another person or places
humanistic geography
the study of different ways that individuals form ideas about place and give those places symbolic meaning
hydrsphere
all of the water on earths surface
internation date line
and arc that for the most part follows 180 longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. when the international date line is crossed heading east, toward america, the clock moves back 24 hours. When crossed going west, towards asia, the clock is moved ahead 24 hours.
latitude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
lithosphere
earth crust and a portion of the upper mantle directly below earths crust
location
the position of anything on earths surface
longitude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
map
a two dimensional representation of earths surface or a portion of it
map scal
the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on earths surface
masup
a map that overlays data from one source on top of a map provided by a mapping service
mental map
a representation of a portion of earths surface based on what an individual knows about a place that contains person impressions of what is in the place and where the place is located
meridian
and arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles
netweork
a chang of communication that connects palces
nonrenewable resource
something produced in nature more slowly that it is consumed by humans
parallel
a curve drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
participators GIS
community-based mapping, representing local knowledge and information
pattern
the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a particular area
place
a specific point on earth, distingushed by a particular characteristic
polder
land that the dutch have created by drilling water from an area
possibilism
the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
postructuarlist geography
the study of space as the product of ideologies or value systems of ruling elites
preservation
the maintenance of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possible
prime meridian
the meridian, designated as 0 longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
projectiong
a system used to transfer locations from earths surface to a flat map
region
an area distinguished by a unique combination or trends or features
relocation diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
remote sensing
the aquisition of data about earths surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long -distance methods
renewable resource
something produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
resource
a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and socially acceptable to use
scale
generally, the relationship between the portion of earth being studied and earth as a whole
site
the physical character of a place
situation
the location of a place relative to another place
space
the physical gap or interval between two objects
space time compression
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systmes
spatial association
the relationship between the distribution of one feature and the distribution of another feature
stimulus diffusion
the spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected
sustainability
the use of earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future
syncretism
the combing of elements of two group into a new cultural feature
toponym
the combing of elements of two groups into a new cultural feature
transnational corpoartion
a company that conducts research,creates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
uneven development
the increasing gap in economic conditions between the core and peripheral regions and a result of the globilization of the economy
vernacular region/ preceptual region
an area that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity
volunteered geographic information
creation and decimation of geographic data contributed voluntarily and for free by individuals
agricultural density
the ration of the number of farmers to the total amount of arabic land (land suitable for agriculture)
arithmetic density
the total number of people divided by the toal land area
census
a complete enumeration of a population
crude birth rate (CBR)
the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
crude death rate (CDR)
the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people in the society
demographic transition
the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude bith and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population
demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
dependency ratio
the number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
doubling time
the number of years needed to double the population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
ecumene
the portion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
elderly support ratio
the number of working age people (ages 15 to 64) divided by the number of persons 65 and older
epidemiologic transition
the process of change in the distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
epidemiology
the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality
industrial revolution
a series of improcements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
infant mortality rate (IMR)
the total number of deahts in a year among ingants under 1 year of age for every 1,000 live births in a society
life expectancy
the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn ingant can expect to live
maternal mortality rate
the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes)
medical revolution
medical technology invented in Europe and North America that has diffused to the poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives
natrual increase rate (NIR)
the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
overpopulation
a situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
pandemic
disease that ovvurs over a wide geogrphic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
physiological density
the number of people per unit area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
population pyramid
a bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
sex ratio
the number of males per 100 females in the population
total fertility rate (TFR)
the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
zero population growth (ZPG)
a declind of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.