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Chemistry Honors 6.1 & 6.2

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Chemists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups.
How did chemists begin to organize the known elements?
They have very similar chemical properties.
What do chlorine, bromine, and iodine share?
Mendeleev arranged the elements in his periodic table in order of increasing atomic mass.
How did Mendeleev organize his periodic table?
We can use it to predict the properties of undiscovered elements.
What can we use the periodic table for?
In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
How is the modern periodic table organized?
periodic law
when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
They change as you move across a period from left to right.
What do the properties of elements do within a period as you move from left to right?
They repeat as you move from one period to the next.
What do the pattern of properties do within a period?
Three classes of elements are metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
What are the three broad classes of elements?
Across a period, the properties of elements become less metallic and more nonmetallic.
According to the three classes of elements, what happens to its properties across a period?
metals
good conductors of heat and electric current
80%
What is the percentage of metals within the periodic table?
Metals have a high luster, are ductile, and are malleable.
What are some characteristics of metals?
luster
shine
ductile
good conductor of electricity (adj)
malleable
capable of being shaped but doesn't lose its natural form
It is covered in stainless steel containing iron and two other metals, chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni).
Which are the components of the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri?
It is shiny, malleable, and strong. It also resists rusting.
Describe the steel of the Gateway Arch.
aluminum
one of the metals that can be shaped into a thin sheet, or foil
It cannot be thicker than about 0.15 mm.
What is the measurement of a metal to qualify as a foil?
copper
a ductile metal and second to only silver as a conductor of electric current
It must be 99.99% pure.
What is the percentage of copper that is used in electrical cables?
nonmetals
poor conductors of heat and electric current
Most nonmetals are gases at room temperature.
What are most nonmetals?
Examples include sulfur and phosphorus.
What are examples of a few nonmetals that are solid?
Bromine
a nonmetal that is a dark-red liquid
metalloid
an element that has properties that are similar to those of metals and nonmetals
It is controlled by changing conditions.
How is the behavior of a metalloid controlled?
The mixture is a good conductor of electric current.
What happens if a small amount of boron is mixed with silicon?
Silicon
an element that can be cut into wafers and used to make computer chips
The periodic table displays the symbols and names of the elements, along with information about the structure of their atoms.
What type of information can be displayed in a periodic table?
alkali metals
Group 1A elements
alkaline earth metals
Group 2A elements
halogens
Group 7A nonmetals
tall elements of periodic table
Group A elements
short elements of periodic table
Group B elements
Elements can be sorted into noble gases, representative elements, transition metals, or inner transition metals based on their electron configurations.
How can elements be classified based on their electron configurations?
A blimp contains helium, one of the noble gases.
What does a blimp contain?
noble gases
elements in Group 8A of the periodic table
representative elements
elements that display a wide range of physical and chemical properties (Groups 1A-7A, disregarding Group B)
s and p
Which sublevels of the highest occupied level are not filled?
It equals the number of electrons in the highest occupied energy level (e.g. Group 1A elements - 1 electron, Group 4A elements - 4 electrons)
What does the group number equal to?
It contains magnesium.
Which element does chlorophyll contain?
They form salt pans (e.g. Death Valley, California).
What happens when salt lakes evaporate?
Sodium chloride
What is the main salt in a salt pan?
It is a major source of arsenic.
What does the bright red ore in the Earth's crust help with?
It contains a compound of arsenic and sulfur.
What does the bright red ore contain?
The two types of transition elements are transition metals and inner transition metals.
What are the two types of transition elements?
They are classified based on their electron configurations.
How are transition elements classified?
transition metals
a type of transition element whose highest s sublevel and a nearby d sublevel contain electrons
inner transition metals
a type of transition element whose highest s sublevel and a nearby f sublevel contain electrons