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Classifications of Disease
1.Heredity 2.Constitution 3.Genetic Info 4.Trauma 5.Physical Agents 6.Chemical Poisons 7.Infections 8.Inflammation 9.Vascular 10.Metabolic 11.Nutritional 12.Drugs 13.Iatrogenic 14.Idiopathic 15.Tumor
Angular chelitis (Vitamin B12 deficiency)
Scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency)
Eyes (Vitamin A and K deficiency)
Rickets disease (Vitamin D deficiency)
Beri Beri (Vitamin B1 deficiency)
Single cell integration
Simplest form of integration. T lymphocytes (Interleukins, stimulate growth factors)
More complex cell integration
Transmission of hormonal signals from one cell to another
(epinephrine, hydrocholoride-upset stomach)
Higher form of cell integration
Endocrine stimulating hormones are released into blood stream (insulin).
What is needed to maintain homeostasis?
1.Essential minerals 2.Sodium 3.Chloride 4.Potassium 5.Calcium 6.Iron
Reversible Cell damage causes what cellular changes?
1.Hydropic or Vacuole change 2.Mitochondrial swelling (low amplitude swelling) 3.Vacuoles 4.Cloudy swelling (swelling of ER and mitochondria) 5.Fatty change (fat appears in cell)
If we have sublethal damage...
It is going to cause (us/cell) less energy, less efficient, acidic environment and we have decrease in protein synthesis.
Irreversible Cell damage causes what cellular changes?
1.Persistent injury 2.Destruction of the cristae (swelling) 3.Mitochondria is permanently damaged 4.Depletion of ATP 5.Nuclear changes most characteristic
Irreversible Cell damage appears in what 3 ways?
1.Pyknosis 2.Karyorrhexis 3.Karyolysis
high amplitude swelling
1.Chromosomes become more dense due to condensation
2.Nucleus become small and basophilic
3.DNA does not function
Causes of Cell Injury
1.Hypoxia 2.Toxic 3.Microbial 4.Inflammation 5.Genetic and Metabolic Disorders
Cell adaptions to injury
1.Atrophy 2.Hypertrophy 3.Hyperplasia 4.Metaplasia 5.Intracellular accumulations (Anthracosis and Hemosiderosis)
Caused by increased caloric content. Inhibits degradation enzymes and the utilization of internal fat. Inhibits protein synthesis and export of fat.
Examples of Necrosis
1.Coagulative 2.Liquefactive 3.Caseous 4.Gummatous 5.Hemorrhagic 6.Fat 7.Fibrinoid
Most common type; dead tissue appears firm and pale as if cooked. Small number of lysosomes, generally can see some healthy characteristics.
Specialized form of coagulative; appears soft, white and cream cheese in appearance.
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