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Classifications of Disease

1.Heredity 2.Constitution 3.Genetic Info 4.Trauma 5.Physical Agents 6.Chemical Poisons 7.Infections 8.Inflammation 9.Vascular 10.Metabolic 11.Nutritional 12.Drugs 13.Iatrogenic 14.Idiopathic 15.Tumor

Heredity classification

Genetic, congential

Constitution classification

How strong/resistant are you

Genetic Info classification

Chromosome, Genes, RBC's and WBC's

Physical Agents classification

Temperature, heat, electrical, radiation, atmospheric pressure

Infections classification

Most common cause is bacteria

Inflammation classification

Rheumatoid arthritis

Vascular classification

Caused by blood supply; disease in arteries/veins

Metabolic classification

Enzymes, hormones, secretory products

Nutritional classification

Angular chelitis (Vitamin B12 deficiency)
Scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency)
Eyes (Vitamin A and K deficiency)
Rickets disease (Vitamin D deficiency)
Beri Beri (Vitamin B1 deficiency)

Drugs classification

Cause adverse reaction

Iatrogenic classification

Caused by a professional

Idiopathic classification

Unknown cause

Single cell integration

Simplest form of integration. T lymphocytes (Interleukins, stimulate growth factors)

More complex cell integration

Transmission of hormonal signals from one cell to another
(epinephrine, hydrocholoride-upset stomach)

Higher form of cell integration

Endocrine stimulating hormones are released into blood stream (insulin).


To maintain cell life and normal functions

What is needed to maintain homeostasis?

1.Essential minerals 2.Sodium 3.Chloride 4.Potassium 5.Calcium 6.Iron

Steady state

When equilibrium between cells and their environment is achieved and maintained.

Reversible Cell damage

Sublethal damage; nucleus is unchanged and cell returns to normal.

Causes of reversible cell damage

1.Hypoxia - lack of oxygen
2.Anoxia - no oxygen

What happens if Hypoxia and Anoxia occur?

The cytoplasm swells/changes

Reversible Cell damage causes what cellular changes?

1.Hydropic or Vacuole change 2.Mitochondrial swelling (low amplitude swelling) 3.Vacuoles 4.Cloudy swelling (swelling of ER and mitochondria) 5.Fatty change (fat appears in cell)

If we have sublethal damage...

It is going to cause (us/cell) less energy, less efficient, acidic environment and we have decrease in protein synthesis.

Irreversible Cell damage causes what cellular changes?

1.Persistent injury 2.Destruction of the cristae (swelling) 3.Mitochondria is permanently damaged 4.Depletion of ATP 5.Nuclear changes most characteristic

Irreversible Cell damage appears in what 3 ways?

1.Pyknosis 2.Karyorrhexis 3.Karyolysis
high amplitude swelling


1.Chromosomes become more dense due to condensation
2.Nucleus become small and basophilic
3.DNA does not function


Formation of small particles


Nucleus dissolves; chromatin ceases to develop

Causes of Cell Injury

1.Hypoxia 2.Toxic 3.Microbial 4.Inflammation 5.Genetic and Metabolic Disorders


Reduction in amount of oxygen; reversible or irreversible


Mercury, other drugs


Bacteria, food poisoning, etc

Cell adaptions to injury

1.Atrophy 2.Hypertrophy 3.Hyperplasia 4.Metaplasia 5.Intracellular accumulations (Anthracosis and Hemosiderosis)


Decrease in cell size; tissue or organ


Increase in size due to increase in size of cells


Increase in size due to increase in number of cells


Reversible change; cell changes from one type to another

Intracellular Accumulations

Accumulation of biproducts that prevent normal functioning of cell


Accumulation of coal particles


Accumulation of brown pigment

Lipid formation

Caused by increased caloric content. Inhibits degradation enzymes and the utilization of internal fat. Inhibits protein synthesis and export of fat.


Cell death - exogenous source(outside)


Active form of cell death; injury from inside

Examples of Necrosis

1.Coagulative 2.Liquefactive 3.Caseous 4.Gummatous 5.Hemorrhagic 6.Fat 7.Fibrinoid

Coagulative Necrosis

Most common type; dead tissue appears firm and pale as if cooked. Small number of lysosomes, generally can see some healthy characteristics.

Liquefactive Necrosis

Dead tissue appear semi-liquid; dissolves

Caseous Necrosis

Specialized form of coagulative; appears soft, white and cream cheese in appearance.

Gummatous Necrosis

Dead tissue that is firm and rubbery

Hemorrhagic Necrosis

Contain RBC's

Fat Necrosis

Contain large amounts of fat

Fibrinoid Necrosis

Contain fibrin

Necrosis cause


Necrosis mechanism

Vital process inhibited

Necrosis cell morphology

Swollen; ruptured

Necrosis cell membrane


Necrosis outcome

Phagocytosis by neutrophils

Apoptosis cause

May be exogenous or endogenous

Apoptosis mechanism


Apoptosis cell morphology

Rounded up; fragmented

Apoptosis cell membrane

Functional; intact

Apoptosis outcome

Phagocytosis by macrophages

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