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Terms in this set (47)
To provide natural explanations for events in the natural world9
What are the goals of science?
Observation- a process of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful, orderly way.
Hypothesis- an educated guess by a competent observer
Inference- a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning
Explian the difference between an observation, an inference and a hypothesis.
A particular preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific
What is bias?
Allows scientists to share ideas, test and evaluate each other's work
Explain the importance of peer review.
Independent is manipulated and dependent is measured
In a controlled experiments which variable is manipulated? Which is measured?
Made up of cells, grow and develop, change over time, change to their environment
What characteristics do all living things share?
When its hot outside, you sweat. When its cold outside, we shiver
Give an example of how an organism maintains homeostasis.
Protons (+), electrons (-) and neutrons (no charge)
Name the 3 subatomic particles an their charges.
Same protons and electrons. Different neutrons
Describe the similarities and differences of isotopes
Atomic number: 11 protons and electrons: 11 Neutrons: 12
atomic mass: 23
Use the periodic table to determine how many neutrons are in an atom of Sodium (NA)
Ionic bond- 2 or more opposite ions attract each other to form another ionic bond
Covalent bond- chemical bonding between 2 non-metallic atoms characterized by sharing pairs of electrons
Explain the differences between ionic and covalent bonds
The electrons of the hydrogen atoms are more likely found near the oxygen, making the Oxygen slightly negative and the hydrogen is slightly positive.
Describe water's polarity
Hydrogen bonding, cohesion: the ability to bond with the same substance, adhesion: the ability to bind to different substances, heat up capacity: absorb a lot of energy without boiling
What special properties does water have because of hydrogen bonds?
Solution: when a solute is dissolved in a solvent (water) and evenly distributed throughout the solution
Suspension: a mixture of solvent (water) and evenly distributed throughout the solution
Compare and contrast solutions and suspensions
In a solution of salt water, which is the solute and which is the solvent?
Acids are high in H+
Bases are high in OH-
What types of solutions are high in H+ and OH-?
Acid (which has a pH less than 7) Hydrochloric acid found in the stomach.
Base (which has a pH more than 7) sodium hydroxide or soap or house hold cleaners
What are some common acids? Bases?
3. Nucleic acids
Name the 4 macromolecules
1. Carbohydrates= sugars (monosaccharides)
2. Lipids= fatty acids + glycerol
3. Nucleic acids= nucleotides
4. Proteins= amino acids
What are the monomers of each macromolecule?
1. Carbohydrates: main source of energy. In plants have a structural role
2. Lipids: store energy and form biological membranes
3. Nucleic acids: store genetic information
4. Proteins: many roles of structural, relegate rates of reactions in biological processes, transport molecules in and out of the cells, and help fight disease
What is the role of each type of macromolecule?
Reactants are what goes into a chemical reaction, Products are produced
Identify the reactants and products of a chemical equation
A compound that speeds up the rate of a reaction
They are natures catalyst
Why are enzymes also important?
Temperature, pH are regulatory molecules
What factors may affect enzyme activity?
- all living things are made up of cells
- cell are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
- cells come from pre-existing cells
What are the 3 parts of the cell theory?
prokaryotes do NOT have a nucleus
compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes
membranes are selectively permeable. They will allow some substances to cross, but not others. This is to protect the cell
describe how cellular membrane is semi permeable
passive transport: solutes go from high concentration to low concentration
active transport: solutes go from low concentration to high concentration
what types of transport occur down the concentration gradient? against?
diffusion: movement of particles from high concentration to low
facilitated diffusion: passive transport. molecules move across a membrane through protein channel
osmosis: a type of facilitated diffusion only for water molecule
what are the differences between diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion?
hypertonic solution: water moves out, cell shrinks
hypotonic solution: water moves in, cell expands
what happens to a cell placed in a hypertonic solution? a hypotonic?
what is needed for active transport?
cell, tissue, organ, organ system
what are the levels of organization of a multicellular organism from least complex to most complex?
ATP is changed to ADP when energy is released (loses phosphate). ATP can later be regenerated by adding phosphate back to ADP
how is ATP like a rechargeable battery?
both: adenine, ribose
ATP: 3 phosphate groups
ADP: 2 phosphate groups
what are the parts of an ATP molecule? An ADP molecule?
what types of organism are autotrophs
animals and mushrooms
what types of organisms are heterotrophs?
chemical molecules that absorb light
what are pigments?
chlorophyll reflects GREEN light and absorbs the other colors (ROYGBIV)
What colors of light are absorbed by chlorophyll? which are reflected?
thylakoids: sac-like membranes containing chlorophyll
grana: stacks of thylakoids
stroma: fluid surrounding the thylakoids
describe the parts of the chloroplast
reactants: 6 carbon dioxide (co2) and 6 water (h2o)
products: 1 sugar (C6H12O6) and 6 oxygen (O2)
what are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
temperature, light and water
what factors affect the rates of photosynthesis?
what types of organisms carry out cellular respiration?
reactants: 1 sugar (C6H12O6) and 6 oxygen (O2)
products: 6 carbon dioxide (CO2) and 6 water (H2O)+ energy
what are the reactants and products of cellular respiration?
aerobic: requires oxygen
anerobic: without oxygen
what does it mean for a process to aerobic? anaerobic?
alcoholic: CO2 and alcohol
lactic acid: lactic acid
what are the two types of fermentation? what are the products of each?
after glycolysis when NO oxygen is present
when do cells use fermentation?
the reactants of photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration and the reactants of cellular respiration are the products of photosynthesis
what is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
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