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MIS chapter 2
Technology in Action 9th Edition, Chapter 2: Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts Vocabulary Terms
Terms in this set (106)
A data-processing device that gathers, processes, outputs, and stores data and information.
The gathering of data or allowing the user to enter data.
The manipulation, calculation, or organization of data into information.
The display of data and information in a form suitable for the user.
The saving of data and information for later use.
Numbers, words, pictures, or sounds that represents facts, figures, or ideas.
Data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion.
The language computers use to process data into information consisting of only the values of 0 and 1.
Binary Digit (Bit)
A digit that corresponds to the on and off states of a computer switches that contains a value of either 0 or 1.nEach 0 or 1 is a bit
A combination of eight bits is a byte
ASCII (most microcomputers)
EBCDIC (Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
Eight binary digits (bits).
A unit of computer storage equal to approximately one thousand bytes.
A unit of computer storage equal to approximately 1 million bytes.
A unit of computer storage equal to approximately a billion bytes.
A unit of computer storage equal to approximately one trillion bytes (1,099,511,627,776 bytes or 2^40 bytes).
Any part of the computer you can physically touch.
The set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending e-mail, balancing a budget, creating presentations, editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games.
The set of programs that enables a computer's hardware devices and application software to work together; it includes the operating system and utility programs.
Operating System (OS)
The system software that controls the way in which a computer system functions, including the management of hardware, peripherals, and software.
A small, compact portable computer.
A computing device that runs a full-featured operating system but weighs two pounds or less.
A notebook computer designed specifically to work with handwriting recognition technology. (Similar to notebook but monitor swivels and folds.)
A mobil computer integrated into a flat multitouch-sensitive screen. It uses an onscreen virtual keyboard, but separate keyboards can be connected via Bluetooth or wires. (Examples: Apple iPad or Motorola XOOM)
A Computer intended for use at a single location that consists of a case that houses the main components of the computer, plus the peripheral devices.
A device such as a monitor, printer, or keyboard that connects to the system unit through the data port.
A desktop system unit that houses the computer's processor, memory, and monitor in a single unit.
A large, expensive computer that supports hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously and executes many different programs at the same time.
A specifically designed computer that can perform complex calculations extremely rapidly (used in weather forecasting or atomic energy research).
A specifically designed computer chip that resides inside another device, such as a car.
A hardware device used to enter, or input, data and instructions into a computer. (Examples: Keyboard, mouse, etc)
A hardware input device used to enter typed data and commands into a computer.
A hardware input device used to enter user responses and commands into a computer.
A pen-shaped device used to tap or write on touch-sensitive screens.
A keyboard that gets its name from the first six letters on the top left row of alphabetic keys on the keyboard. (The type of keyboard used in many computer devices).
A type of wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances used to connect printers, keyboards, or handsets.
A mouse that uses an internal sensor or laser to control the mouse's movement.
Touch Pad (Trackpad)
A small, touch-sensitive screen at the base of a notebook keyboard that is used to direct the cursor.
A small, joystick-like nub that enables you to move the cursor with the tip of your finger.
A type of monitor or display that accepts input from a user touching the screen.
A drive that plugs into a universal serial bus (USB) port on a computer and stores data digitally.
A device that allows the user to capture sound waves and transfer them to digital format on your computer.
A device that sends processed data and information out of a computer in the form of text, pictures, sound, or video.
Monitor (Display Screen)
A common output device that displays text, graphics, and video as soft copies (copies that con only be seen on screen).
A common output device that creates tangible or hard copies of text and graphics.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
The most common type of technology used in flat-panel computer monitors.
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
A newer, more energy efficient type of monitor.
Comprises computing devices, software, or peripherals that use techniques, parts, and methods from an earlier time that are no longer popular.
Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays (OLED)
A display that uses organic compounds to produce light when exposed to an electric current.
A single point that creates the images on a computer monitor that is illuminated by an electron beam that passes rapidly back and forth.
The width-to height proportion of a monitor.
The clearness or sharpness of an image, which is controlled by the number of pixels displayed on the screen.
A measure of the difference in light intensity between the brightest white colors and darkest black colors that a monitor can produce.
Measured in degrees, this is the maximum angle at which a monitor can be viewed before the image equality degrades to unacceptable levels.
A measure of the greatest amount of light showing when a monitor is displaying pure white; measured as candelas per square meter (cd/m2) or nits.
The measurement in milliseconds of the time it takes for a pixel to change color.
A device that can project images from your computer onto a wall or viewing screen.
A printer that sprays ink or uses laser beams to make marks on the paper.
A printer that has tiny hammer-like keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, thus making marks on the paper.
A nonimpact printer that sprays tiny drops of ink onto a paper.
A nonimpact printer known for quick and quiet production and high-quality printouts.
A large printer that uses a computer-controlled pen to produce oversize pictures that require precise continuous lines to be drawn.
A printer that works either by melting wax-based ink onto ordinary paper or by burning dots onto specially coated paper.
An output device for sound.
Speaker systems set up in such a way that they surround an entire area with sound.
A special circuit board in the system unit that contains the Central Processing Unit, the memory (RAM) chips, and the slots available for expansion cards.
The metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer together.
Expansion Card (Adapter Cards)
A circuit board with specific functions that augment the computer's basic functions and provide connections to the other devices.
An expansion card that attaches to the motherboard inside the system unit and that enables the computer to produce sounds by providing a connection for the speakers and microphone.
Video Card (Video Adapter)
An expansion card that is installed inside a system unit to translate binary data into the images viewed on the monitor.
An expansion card that provides the computer with a connection to the Internet via conventional phone lines.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
An expansion card that enables a computer to connect other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate a high-speed Internet connection.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
The computer's temporary storage space or short-term memory.
Temporary storage, such as RAM, that is cleaned out when the power is off.
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
A set of memory chips located on the motherboard which store data and instructions that cannot be changed or erased.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The part of the system unit of a computer that is responsible for data processing and is the largest and most important chip in the computer (the "brains"). It controls all the functions performed by the computer's other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions.
One billion hertz.
Hard Disk Drive (HDD, Hard Drive)
A device that holds all permanently stored programs and data and can be located inside the system unit or attached to the system unit via a USB port.
Permanent storage, as in read-only memory (ROM).
Solid-State Drive (SSD)
A storage device that uses the same kind of memory that a flash drive use, but can reach data in only a tenth of the time a flash drive requires.
A special shelf inside a computer that is designed to hold storage devices.
Internal Hard Drive
A device that holds all permanently stored programs and is located inside the system unit.
External Hard Drive
A hard drive that is enclosed in a protective case to make it portable and can be connected to the computer with a data transfer cable and is often used to back up data.
Flash Memory Card
A drive that plugs into a universal serial bus (USB) port on a computer and stores data digitally. (Also called USB drive, jump drive, or thumb drive).
A hardware device that uses lasers or light to read from, and maybe even write to, CDs, DVDs, or Blu-ray discs.
Compact Disc (CD)
A method of optical storage for digital data; originally developed for storing digital audio.
Digital Video Disc (DVD)
Video interface technology that newer LCD monitors, as well as other multimedia devices such as television, DVD players, and projectors.
Blue-Ray Disc (BD)
A method of optical storage for digital data, developed for storing high-definition media. It has the largest storage capacity of all optical storage options.
An interface which external devices are connected to the computer.
Universal Serial Bus Port (USB)
A port that can connect a wide variety of peripheral devices to the computer, including keyboards, printers, mice, smartphones, PDAs, flash drives, and digital cameras.
A port that enables the computer (or other devices) to be connected to other devices or systems such as networks, modems, and the Internet.
A port that is slightly larger than a standard phone jack and transfers data at speeds up to 10, 000 Mbps; used to connect a computer to a DSL or cable modem or a network.
A port that uses a traditional telephone signal to connect a computer to the Internet.
Video Graphics Array (VGA)
A port to which a CRT monitor connects.
Digital Video Interface (DVI)
Video interface technology that newer LCD monitors, as well as other multimedia devices such as televisions, DVD players, and projectors, use to connect to a PC.
S-Video (Super Video)
A type of technology used to transmit video signals; used on newer LCD monitors, as well as other multimedia devices such as televisions, DVD players, and projectors.
High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
A compact audio-video interface standard that carries both high-defintion video and uncompressed digital audio.
Regulates the wall voltage to the voltage required by the computer chips; it is housed inside the system unit.
The process of starting a computer from a powered-down or off state.
A low-power mode for electronic devices such as computers and saves electrical power consumption and saves the last-used settings. When device is "woken up" work is resumed more quickly than when a cold booting the computer.
A power-management mode that saves the current state of the current system to the computer's hard drive.
The process of restarting the system while it's powered on.
How a user sets up his or her computer and other equipment to minimize risk of injury or discomfort.
Mechanical & Optical Mouse
ROM (Read Only Memory)
Holds instructions to start up the computer
RAM (Random Access Memory)
Stores data and program instructions the CPU is currently working on
Fast RAM for instructions queuing for immediate processing by the CPU
Permanent storage of data and programs
Optical disks (CD's, DVD's, Bluray)
How computer processes
System Bus (Bus Lines / Bus Width)
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Interprets and executes commands
Controls movement of data
example of output devices
Output types are limited
Video output (CRT, Flat monitors, Touch monitors)
Printer (Laser, Ink-jet)
Sound (headphones, speakers)
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