Excelsior U.S. History Unit 1 (Ch. 4)

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secession
The formal withdrawal of a state from the Union.
popular sovereignty
Used in the territories to give the residents of the area the right to vote for or against slavery.
Compromise of 1850
A series of resolutions which allowed California to become a state, free of slavery, and for new and more effective fugitive slave laws to be enacted throughout the country.
Underground Railroad
The system of escape routes that African Americans and white abolitionists used to move slaves from the south to the north. "Conductors" would hide them, feed and clothe them until their next stop.
Harriet Tubman
A former slave and one of the most famous conductors of the Underground Railroad.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin who wrote about slavery being a moral issue not just a political one. Her work helped increase protests of the Fugitive Slave Act.
Franklin Pierce
Democratic President of the United States who won, in part, because The Whig party had split over the issue of slavery.
Dred Scott
A slave who fought for his freedom in the Supreme Court. He argued that since he had been taken out of a slave state to a free territory, he should be free. The Supreme Court ruled against him, angering abolitionists and exciting slave owners.
Stephen Douglas
The Democratic Senator incumbent who debated with Abraham Lincoln on how to keep slavery out of the territories.
Abraham Lincoln
Elected President of the United States in 1860 with less than half of the popular vote, no electoral votes from the South and did not even appear on the ballot in some southern states. he won because all the other parties had their own candidates and split the votes.
Confederacy
Formed after the first few southern states seceeded from the Union, when they met in Alabama, created their own Constitution which recognized slavery in the territories.
Jefferson Davis
Unanimously elected the first President of the Confederate States of America.
Fort Sumter
The first Northern fort in the South to be seized after Lincoln became President.
Bull Run
The battle where the first blood was shed in the Civil War.
Stonewall Jackson
A Southern general who helped win the victory in the Battle of Bull Run.
Ulysses S. Grant
A brave and decisive Union general.
Robert E. Lee
Southern general who tried to take over Washington D.C.
Antietam
The bloodiest single day battle in American history.
Emancipation Proclamation
The statement given by President Lincoln which freed the slaves and gave a moral purpose to the war.
conscription
A draft that forced men to serve in the army and led to draft riots in some places.
Clara Barton
Union army nurse who went on to found the American Red Cross.
income tax
Instituted for the first time during the Civil War to help pay for the war. It takes a specific percentage of an individual's income.
Gettysburg
The most decisive battle of the Civil War, the first time that Robert E. Lee had been beaten, and the point at which the South gave up the idea of invading the North.
Gettysburg Address
The speech made by President Lincoln to commemorate a cemetery in Gettysburg which helped to unify the nation.
Vicksburg
One of two Confederate strongholds on the Mississippi River which could control the water traffic which was overtaken by General Grant and helped secure that the Confederacy was cut in two pieces along the Mississippi.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Appointed by General Grant as commander of the military division of the Mississippi famous for his march across Georgia and then went north to meet with General Grant and take out Lee.
Appomattox Court House
The place where the Confederacy surrendered.
Thirteenth Amendment
Ratified by Congress in 1865, it amended the Constitution to say that slavery could not exist in the United States.
John Wilkes Booth
Southern sympathizer who assassinated President Lincoln in 1865.
Freedmen's Bureau
Established by Congress to provide food, clothing, hospitals, legal protection, and education to former slaves.
Reconstruction
The period during which the US began to rebuild after the Civil War and to readmit the southern states to the Union which lasted from 1865-1877. Originally, Abraham Lincoln favored a plan that was very lenient towards the South, giving them pardons among other things, and his successor, Andrew Jackson, agreed with this plan.
Radical Republicans
A minority of Republicans in Congress, led by Senators Sumner and Stevens who wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders.
Andrew Johnson
President Lincoln's Vice-President and eventual successor who helped bring about the reconstruction of the remaining southern states after Lincoln was assassinated.
Fourteenth Amendment
Prevented states from denying rights and privileges to any U.S. citizen, now defined as "all persons born or naturalized in the United States."
Fifteenth Amendment
Voting amendment which said that no one could be kept from voting because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
scalawag
White southerners who joined the Republican Party to improve their economic position and keep the wealthy planters from regaining power.
carpetbagger
Northerners who moved to the South after the war and joined the Republican Party.
Hiram Revels
The first African-American Senator.
sharecropping
A system in which landowners divided their land and assigned each head of household a share of their crops and gave the rest to the landowners.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
The most notorious and widespread of the southern vigilante opponents to reconstruction whose goals were to destroy the Republican Party, and prevent African Americans from exercising their political rights.

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