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CP Biology- DNA Replication Study Guide 2018
Terms in this set (26)
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide;
Pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells; or
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
In a plant cell, midline of dividing cells. Becomes the cell wall eventually.;
the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones;
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material;
Bodies within the nucleus made in DNA and proteins called the histones
two identical strands of DNA joined by a common centromere.
any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells
The number of chromosomes present in a diploid cell; symbolized 2n - Humans have 46
The number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
3 points where regulatory proteins (enzymes) determine if cell is ready to proceed in cell cycle
DNA polymerase I (RNase H)
DNA polymerase I (or Pol I) is an enzyme that participates in the process of prokaryotic DNA replication. Discovered by Arthur Kornberg in 1956, it was the first known DNA polymerase (and, indeed, the first known of any kind of polymerase). It was initially characterized in E. coli and is ubiquitous in prokaryotes. In E. coli and many other bacteria, the gene that encodes Pol I is known as polA. The E. coli form of the enzyme is composed of 928 amino acids, and is an example of a processive enzyme—it can sequentially catalyze multiple polymerisations without releasing the single-stranded template. The physiological function of Pol I is mainly to repair any damage with DNA, but it also serves to connect Okazaki fragments by deleting RNA primers and replacing the strand with DNA.
DNA polymerase III
DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is the primary enzyme complex involved in prokaryotic DNA replication. It was discovered by Thomas Kornberg (son of Arthur Kornberg) and Malcolm Gefter in 1970. ... DNA Pol III is a component of the replisome, which is located at the replication fork.
(also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated. This can either involve the replication of DNA in living organisms such as prokaryotes and eukaryotes, or that of DNA or RNA in viruses, such as double-stranded RNA viruses.
a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC 184.108.40.206) that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond. ... DNA ligase is used in both DNA repair and DNA replication (see Mammalian ligases).
Primase (RNA polymerase)
an enzyme involved in the replication of DNA and is a type of DNA polymerase. Primase catalyzes the synthesis of a short RNA (or DNA in some organisms ) segment called a primer complementary to a ssDNA template. Primase is of key importance in DNA replication because no known replicative DNA polymerases can initiate the synthesis of a DNA strand without an initial RNA or DNA primer (for temporary DNA elongation). After this elongation the RNA piece is removed by a 5' to 3' exonuclease and refilled with DNA.
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks; An enzyme that utilizes energy from nucleoside triphosphate (e.g. ATP) hydrolysis in order to unwind the two annealed nucleic acid strands (e.g. DNA) Supplement. DNA is a helical, double-stranded molecule that bears the genetic code.
Relatively short fragment of DNA synthesized on the lagging strand during DNA replication.
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
Chain of nucleotides continuously made as the replication fork opens; Strand of DNA being replicated continuously. In DNA replication, the strand that is made in the 5' to 3' direction by continuous polymerization at the 3' growing tip. See also lagging strand.
is one of two strands of DNA found at the replication fork, or junction, in the double helix; the other strand is called the leading strand. A lagging strand requires a slight delay before undergoing replication, and it must undergo replication discontinuously in small fragments.
Single Strand Binding protein (SSB)
Bacterial SSB. SSB protein domains in bacteria are important maintaining DNA metabolism, more specifically DNA replication, repair and recombination. It has a structure of three beta-strands to a single six-stranded beta-sheet to form a dimer.
A class of enzymes that alter the supercoiling of double-stranded DNA. (In supercoiling the DNA molecule coils up like a telephone cord, which shortens the molecule.) The topoisomerases act by transiently cutting one or both strands of the DNA.
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