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114 terms

sociology final

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the ideological perspective that advocates measured change to improve the existing social order without fundamentally transforming it is...
liberalism
in any society and macrostructure, this ideological perspective is usually most popular:
conservatism
during the american revolution, those who fought for capitalism and democracy:
radicals
members of the capitalist class:
never have to enter the labor market
in the u.s. today, the working class:
are always in danger of unemployment
according to the radical view of class:
the interests of one class are in direct conflict with interests of the other
social stratification is a concept that refers to:
society ranking categories of ppl in a hierarchy
because of social stratification in the u.s.:
some ppl have more privileges and opportunities than others do
sandar lives in a village with a caste system. his social position is mostyl a result of:
birth-which family he was born into
the replacement of caste systems with class systems:
replaces one kind of inequality with another
the concept meritocracy refers to social stratification:
based entirely on personal merit
the concept ideology refers to:
cultural beliefs that justify social stratifcation
according to davis and moore, inequality promotes productivity:
by motivating ppl to work longer, harder, or better, encouraging ppl to get schooling and skills, and encouraging ppl to want to have more important jobs
while the davis and moore thesis suggests "to each according to the importance of one's work," karl marx supported the idea:
"from each according to his ability, to each according to need"
the text gives several reasons that a social revolution did not take place as marx predicted. what are the reasons it didnt happen?
living standards rose, the law affords workers far greater legal protection, and stock places ownership of companies in the hands of lots of ppl
karl marx belived that socialism would end social stratification by abolishing provate property. what was webers view?
weber warned that socialism would generate a new elite based on govt power
evidence suggests that, as the u.s. moves into the post-industrial phase of economic development, economic inequality is:
increasing
the lowest ranking 40 percent of u.s. families has about:
no wealth at all
which of the following concepts refers to upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents?
intergenerational social mobility
in terms of race, two-thirds of all poor people in the u.s. are:
white
the feminization of poverty refers to the fact that in the u.s.:
a larger share of the poor are women
which of the following statements is true about homeless ppl in the u.s?
over one third of all homeless ppl are entire families
which of the following concepts refers to social organzation in which male dominates females?
patriarchy
which of the following concepts refers to attitudes and activites that a society links to ppl of each sex?
gender roles
in observing children at play, janet lever concluded that:
boys favor games with clear winners and losers
the beauty myth refers to the idea that;
women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance
pink collar work refers to what type of jobs?
clerical
the concept comparable worth refers to the idea that:
women should receive the same pay as men for work that is equally important
which factors accounts for the largest share of difference in the earnings of working women and men in the u.s.?
differences in the type of work men and women do
which of the following concepts refers to an invisible, yet real, barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positions?
"glass ceiling"
which of the following is at the heart of the controvery over womens participation in the military?
women are defined by our culture as nurturers rather than ppl who kill
which of the following statements is the best reason to see women as a minority in the u.s.?
at every class level, women have less income, wealth, education, and power than men do
intersection theory focuses on:
the interplay of race, class, and gender often leading to multiple disadvantages
most violence against women occurs:
in the home
talcott parsons described gender in terms of:
complemantarity
friedrich engels claimed that capitalism:
increased mens domination of women
what type of feminism accepts the basic organization of u.s. society, but seeks to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?
liberal feminism
what type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender intself?
radical feminism
race is:
a sociall constructed category who share traits that society deems important
which of the following refers to cultural heritage?
ethnicity
which of the following concepts refers to a category of ppl, distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially disadvantaged?
minority
what is true about minorities?
have a distinctive identity, doesnt have to be a numerical minority, and ppl can readily identify a member of a minority
whicih of the following concepts refers to a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of ppl?
prejudice
stereotypes refers to"
exaggerated descriptions applied to everyone in some category
which of the following concepts refers to a belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another?
racism
based on the scapegoat theory, you would conclude that prejudice is created by:
frustration among disadvantaged ppl
conflict theory states that prejudice is:
used by powerful ppl to justify oppressing others
while prejudice is a matter of ____, discrimination is a matter of ____.
attitudes;action
institutional discrimination
discrimination occuring in institutions such as hospital, school, or bank
which of the following concepts refers to a state in which racial and ethnic minoorities are distinct but have rough social equality?
pluralism
assimilation refers to the pattern by which
minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category
which of the following concepts refers to the physical and social seperation of categories of ppl?
segregation
douglas massey and nancy denton studied racial segregation in the u.s. cities and documented which of the following patterns?
hypersegregation
the posindustrial economy is defined by
computer technology
the concept global economy refers to
expanding economic activity that moves across national borders
globalization of the economy means that
a small number of businesses control a large share of the planets economy, more and more products pass thu several nations, and world regions specialize in one sector of economic activity
capitalism is an economic system in which there is
private ownership of productive property
in a capitalist economic system, justice amounts to
marketplace freedorm-buying or investing according to self-interest
the u.s. is considered a mostly capitalist nation because
the vast mjaority of productive businesses are privately owned
in a socialist economic systems, justice means
trying to meet the basic needs of all
authoritarian personality theory states that extreme prejudiced is
a trait of certain individuals
c. wrigth milla pointed out that sociological awareness tends to be more widespread
in times of social crisis
marx used the concept of labor power to refer to
the capacity to work
in marxist theory, the superstructure is extremely important to capitalism because
it provides justification for inequalities that the working class accepts
surplus labor time
is invisibly appropriated under the capitalist macrostructure
according to marxist theory, what is the relationshio between capitalism and socialism?
capitalism must come before socialism
unless marx, max weber:
viewed alienation, bureaucracy, and rationalization as permanent features
when the distributions of positions is inconsistend with the distribution of talents and abilities, durkheim called this
forced division of labor
c. wright mills termed the ability to perceive the intersections of history and biography
sociological imagination
which of these is not a precondition of marxist socialism
the violent overthrow of the ruling class
social darwinist herbert spencer argued that society would only advance if
"do-gooders" did not help the unfit survive
critical sociologist c. wright mills believed that social problems are caused by:
contradictions within our social institutions
the w i thomas theorem argues that
if people define situations as real, then they are real in their consequences
one advantage of using case studies for social research
researcher can study individuals in their natural setting
a disadvantage of using existing data for social research
researcher must use the format provided
the researchers impact on his or her subjects may affect the studys results. this is called
the hawthorne effect
which sociological perspective approaches society from a micro-level?
interactionism
as sociologists, we need to use critical thinking when observing social issues. this means that
we should be willing to ask any question and be open to any answer
if someone bumps into us in a hallway we expect them to say that they are sorry. this is an example of a
folkway
specific expectations about how ppl should behave in a given situation
norms
schools teaching, in addition to their regular curriculum, students to be polite, to respect authority, and to believe in capitalism and the american way of life is an example of
latent function of education
social solidarity based on shared values
mechanical solidarity
making use of the sociological perspective encourages
challenging commonly held beliefs
the theoretical approach in sociology that views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the
structural-functional approach
which of the foloowing is an accurate criticism of the structrual-functional approach
it ignores inequality that can generate tension and conflict
the social-conflict approach draws attention to
patterns of social inequality
for karl marx, the point of studying society was
to reduce inequality
the basic idea of the symbolic-interaction approach is that society is
the reality people construct as they interact with one another
a criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it
ignores how structural factors such as class affect peoples experiences
it would be correct to say that critical sociology
seeks to bring about desirable social change
among all forms of life, humans stand out as the only species that
relies on culture to ensure survival
sociologists define a symbol as
anythign that carries a meaning to ppl who share a culture
standards by which ppl who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beauti*** are called
values
what are the values central to u.s. culture indentified by robin williams?
equal opportunity, racism and group superiority, and material comfort.
high-income nations tend to have cultural values that emphasize
self-expression
compared to an industrial society, a postindustrial society is based on
an information-based economy
cultural patterns that are widespread among a societys population are referred to as
popular culture
the concept couterculture referes to
cultural patterns that oppose those that arw wdiely held
ethnocentrism
judging another culture by the standards of ones own culture
which theoretical approach asserts that the stability of the u.s. society rests on core values shared by most people?
the structural-functional approach
a marxist analysis of u.s. culture suggests that our competitive and individualistic values reflect
this nations capitalist economy
culture is a source of human freedom because
cultural creatures must make and remake the world for themselves
which of the following concepts refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?
socialization
jean piaget called the level of development at which ppl first use lang and other cultural symbols is what stage?
preoperational stage
the focus of lawrence kohlbergs research was
moral reasoning
george herbert mead placed the origin if the self in
social experience
by taking the role of the other mead had in mind
imagining a situation from another persons point of view
when charles horton cooley used the term looking glass self he was referring to the fact that
people see themselves as they think others see them
mead considered the generalized other to be
widespread cultural norms and values ppl take as their own
family is important to the socialization process because
parents greatly affect a child self-concept, families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion, and femaily is often what mead called significant others
when ppl modeal themselved after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in
anticipatory socialization
sociologists claims the main reason that many young ppl in the u.s. experience adolescence as a time of confusion is
cultural inconsistency in defining this stage of life as partly childlike and partly adultlike
according to erving goffman, the goal of a total institution is
to radically alter a persons personality or behavior
which of the following reflects goffmans decriptopn of the resocialization process?
stripping away an old identity, then building a new identitity.