COASTS

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3 KEY THINGS FOR A WAVE TO FORM
Wind, Friction, Circular motion
SWASH
is the rush of seawater up the beach after the breaking of a wave
BACKWASH
is the motion of receding waves back to the ocean
CONSTRUCTIVE WAVE
strong swash, weak backwash, smaller wave height, gentle beach profile are features of a...
DESTRUCTIVE WAVE
strong backwash, weak swash, larger wave height, steep beach profile are features of a...
EROSION
the process by which the surface of the earth is worn away by the action of water, glaciers, winds, waves
ATTRITION
is when waves cause rocks and pebbles to bump into each other and break up.
ABRASION
occurs as breaking waves which contain sand and larger fragments erode the shoreline or headland. It is commonly known as the sand paper effect.
HYDRAULIC ACTION
When waves hit the base of a cliff air is compressed into cracks. When the wave retreats the air rushes out of the gap. Often this causes cliff material to break away.
SOLUTION
when certain types of cliff erode as a result of weak acids in the sea.
FACTORS AFFECTING RATE OF EROSION
rock type, beach structure/shape, beach ,material, type of wave
RATE OF EROSION
how quickly something erodes is...
MASS MOVEMENT
is the downhill movement of weathered material under the force of gravity
ROCKFALL
Rock is undercut at the base as a result of weathering or erosional processes. The underlying rock cannot support its weight, causing it to collapse and fall.
LANDSLIDE
Occurs when the gravitational force acting on the slope exceeds its resistive force, causing slope failure (landslide). The greater the slope, the greater potential of a slope failure.
WEATHERING
is the break-down of rock by physical or chemical processes. Three main types called physical, chemical and biological
PHYSICAL WEATHERING
is caused by changes such as changes in temperature, freezing and thawing, and the effects of wind, rain and waves.
CHEMICAL WEATHERING
Rainwater is naturally slightly acidic because carbon dioxide from the air dissolves in it. Minerals in rocks may react with the rainwater, causing the rock to be weathered.
BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
is where rocks can be worn away by animals and plants, for example rabbits can burrow into a crack in a rock, making it bigger and splitting the rock.
TRANSPORTATION
is the movement of material in the sea and along the coast by waves.
TRACTION
is where pebbles and larger sediment are rolled along the sea bed
SALTATION
is where load is bounced along the sea bed, eg small pieces of shingle or large sand grains. Currents cannot keep the larger and heavier sediment afloat for long periods.
SUSPENSION
is where small particles are carried in water, eg silts and clays, which can make the water look cloudy. Currents pick up large amounts of sediment in suspension during a storm, when strong winds generate high energy waves
LONGSHORE DRIFT
is the transport of sand and pebbles along the coast.. The prevailing wind (the direction the wind usually blows from) causes waves to approach the coast at an angle. The swash carries the sand and pebbles up the beach at the same angle (usually 45º).
SPIT
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WAVE CUT PLATFORM
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HEADLAND
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BAY
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ARCH
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STACK
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STUMP
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WAVE CUT NOTCH
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