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Organization of the CNS
Terms in this set (47)
describe the two pathways of the sympathetic nervous system preganglionic fibers
they originate in the spinal cord. pass 2 sympathetic chains on either side of spinal column. enter vessel or sweat glands. may pass through without synapse and continue to adrenal medulla
what is the preganglionic transmitter in the sympathetic nervous system?
what is the postganglionic transmitter in the sympathetic nervous system?
noradrenaline / norepinephrine
What does noradrenaline do?
increase heart beat. raises blood pressure. dilates pupils. dilates trachea and bronchi. stimulates liver glycogen into glucose. shunts blood away from viscera to muscles, brain and heart. inhibits peristalsis in GI tract. inhibits contraction of bladder
which cranial nerves carry parasympathetic fibers/
CN III, VII, IX, X
What is the function of the parasympathetic nervous system?
rest and digest
slows heart beat. lowers blood pressure. constricts the pupil. increased blood to skin and viscera. increased peristalsis of GI tract
what are the postganglionic transmitters for the parasympathetic nervous system?
mostly acetylcholine but a few use Nitric oxide or noradrenaline
what is the preganglionic transmitter for the parasympathetic nervous system?
how many parts makeup the brain and name each part
3 parts: forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
what are the parts of the forebrain?
what are the parts of the midbrain?
what are the parts of the hindbrain?
what are the parts of the telencephalon?
cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala
what are the parts of the diencephalon?
what are the parts of the mesencephalon?
what are the parts of the metencephalon?
what are the parts of the myelencephalon?
name the spinal nerves
cervical, brachial, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
how does acetylcholine and the Vagus nerve decrease inflamation and prevent tumors?
reduces inflammation by sending inflammation information to the adrenal medulla. relayed back to inflamed area. acetylcholine is released and reduces TNF (tumor necrosis factor) and inflammatory cytokines
what is the cephalic flexure?
80 degree bend from spinal cord to long axis of cerebrum
describe afferent flow of information
from organ to brain
describe efferent flow of information
from brain to organ
name the fibers of the afferent/efferent systems
primary afferents -> terminate in CNS on 2nd order neurons -> project to 3rd order neurons
which somatosensory pathway crosses in the spinal column?
which somatosensory pathway crosses in the medulla?
dorsal column medial lemniscal pathway
which tract carries information about touch, pressure, vibration?
dorsal column medial lemniscal pathway (discrimination)
which tract carries information about pain and temperature?
spinothalamic tract - also tickle and itch
which tract carries information about awareness of muscles and limb orientation (proprioception)?
at which level does the corticospinal tract decussate?
at the medulla, above mid thoracic level
which neurological disease affects the corticospinal tract?
the corticospinal tract degenerates in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
describe the findings in a lower motor lesion
individual muscle of muscle group affected. pronounced wasting. flaccid, hypotonic muscle
describe the findings in an upper motor lesion
paralysis affect movement rather than muscles. wasting only due to disuse. clasp knife type spasticity, hypertonic muscles
describe the role of the basal ganglia in movement
receive information from the association cortex. involved with planning and initiation of movement. relay nuclei: substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei. basal ganglia communicate with premotor cortex and supplementary motor area via nuclei in thalamus
describe the movement findings in hypokinesia
lack of movement caused by increased inhibition of the thalamus by the basal ganglia
describe the movement findings in hyperkinesia
too much movement by decreased basal ganglia input, removing inhibition of the thalamus
describe the movement findings in bradykinesia
slowness of movement
describe the movement findings in akinesia
difficulty initiating movement
what is an infarct
necrotic region of tissue, can be fatal
what is a lacunae
what is a thrombus
sudden blockage in a vessel, likely blood clot
what is an embolus?
foreign matter carried along blood stream
what is the difference between an ischemia vs infarction?
ischemia - smaller areas that lack oxygen, scar, but then heal again
infarction - larger affected area of cells that have died in many cases can be fatal
TIA vs Ischemic stroke
reversible, e.g. amaurosis fugax due to embolus from internal carotid that temporarily obstructs ophthalmic artery
what is an aneurysm?
balloon like swellings of arterial branch points
what is a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
what are the symptoms associated with a brain aneurysm in a posterior communicating artery?
it is near CNIII so headache, down and out eye, affects lid and pupil too
what is an arteriovenous malformation?
large anastomoses between arteries and veins, steal blood and bleed easily
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