47 terms

Ancient Mesopotamia, Judaism & Egypt

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The world's first civilizations arose in
River valleys
Between the Tigris and Euphrates river valley
Mesopotamia
Nile River valley and Nile Delta
Egypt
Ancient river civilizations in the near east
Mesopotamia and Egypt
The earliest civilizations were all near major rivers because
Rivers provided a regular water supply and transportation
River valley conditions favored farming because
Floodwaters spread silt across the valleys, renewing the soil and keeping it fertile
Silt
Tiny bits of rock and dirt from the bottom of the river
Fertile Crescent
A region of the Middle East named for its rich soils
Mesopotamia
A region in the Fertile Crescent, means "between the rivers". Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Rivers were controlled in order to get water to the fields through
Irrigation systems
Epic of Gilgamesh
Mesopotamian narrative peom
Sumer
The world's first civilization in Mesopotamia
Sumerian social structure
Distinct social hierarchy (High class, middle class, low class)
Hierarchy
System of ranking groups
Polytheistic
The belief in more than one god
Ziggurat
Large, stepped platform topped by a temple and dedicated the city god or goddess
Cuneiform
Earliest known writing. Scribes wrote by making wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets
Babylon
"Gate of the god", adopted cuneiform
Hammurabi
King of Babylon. Brought Babylon to power
Hammurabi's Code
Set of laws written by Hammurabi
Nebuchadnezzar
Revived Babylon and made it one of the largest cities in ancient Mesopotamia
Cyrus the Great
Persian ruler that took over Babylon, tolerant of the people the conquered
Built roads to unify their empire
Persians
Bureaucracy-Persia
Form of government where the emperor chooses people to work for him
Zorastrianism
Persian religion that was polytheistic. Believed humans are free to choose between right and wrong
Monotheistic
The belief in only one god
Judaism
Monotheistic religion that was founded by the Hebrews (ancient Israelites)
Torah
Jews most sacred text; first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible
Abraham
Considered the father of the Israelite people
The Ten Commandments
Set of laws that Jews believe God gave them through Moses
Judaism is spread through
Exile and diaspora
Exile
Being banned from native country; Babylonian captivity
Diaspora
Jews leaving their original homeland of Israel
Assyrians
Known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; valued the military
Jerusalem
Capital of the Kingdom of Israel
Moses
Led the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt; received the 10 commandments
King Solomon
2nd King of the kingdom of Israel (King David's son) who built a great temple in Jerusalem
Palestine/Canaan
Promised land of the Hebrews located at the SE end of the Mediterranean Sea
Ark of the Covenant
A sacred chest that housed the tablets of the Ten Commandments. It was placed within the sanctuary where God would come and dwell.
Covenant
A solemn agreement or promise between God and Abraham in which mutual commitments were made.
Synagogue
Jewish house of worship
Phonecians
known for manufacturing and trade, developed a purple dye; had colonies for trade; developed alphabet
alphabet
developed by the Phonecians
pictograms
A pictorial symbol or sign representing an object or concept. Used by Paleolithic man
Pharaoh
A king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader.
pyramid
Huge, triangular shaped burial tombs of Egyptian pharaohs built during the Old Kingdom
Satrap
a governor of a province in the Persian Empire
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