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Social and Cultural Diversity
Terms in this set (35)
Discuss the unique factors of older works and discuss techniques needed in working with older adults in a counseling setting.
- While the mental abilities of older workers remain unimpaired, many do experience some slowing down of such tasks as assembly line work.
- It is important for them to feel secure in their jobs and to have a sense of affiliation.
- Many older workers experience more job satisfaction than their younger counterparts, but when an older person loses a job, he or she is likely to remain unemployed for longer than a younger person.
- Counselors working with older persons should assist them in the development of positive attitudes toward their worth and dignity. (This is especially important when working with someone whose need for counseling derives from unemployment!)
- Specific and immediate problems should be dealt with through problem-solving approaches.
- The CO may also use a structured life review to help the client put the past and future in perspective.
Provide an overview of the American with Disabilities Act.
- ADA (1990) prohibits discrimination against qualified and disabled persons by private employers, employment agencies, local and state governments, and labor unions.
- A disabled person is defined as someone who has an activity-limiting mental or physical impairment, who has had such an impairment, or is perceived as having such a condition.
- A qualified employee is one who with reasonable accommodation can perform the essential functions of the job.
- Employers are required to make such reasonable accommodations, unless to do so would impose undue hardship on the business.
Explain the life cycle of a family.
Culture and class influence the details of family development; however, the most common pattern in the United States consists of five stages:
Young adults leave home and establish themselves as emotionally and economically independent from their parents.
The young adults form new long-term emotional relationship, such as marriage.
Children add to the family and create new dynamics along with new responsibilities.
4. Launching adult children:
The children grow up and start cycles of their own.
5. Retirement of senior years:
Generational roles shift as the parents age.
Describe Alfred Adler's concept of birth order.
- Adler believed that birth order creates a different psychological situation for each child and that a person's place in the family influences adult interactions and family dynamics.
- First-borns tend to be achievement oriented, dependable, and hard working. He or she needs attention and fears the loss of the parents' love when a second child comes into the family. They are likely to be given responsibility and expected to be a role model for younger siblings.
- The second child is competitive with his or her older sibling.
- A middle child may feel left out and that life is unfair, but may develop an even temperament.
- The youngest child is likely to be pampered and may become dependent and selfish.
- An only child may be overprotected and spoiled, tend to like being the center of attention, and is likely to prefer adult company.
Explain the influence of culture or ethnicity on families.
- Definitions of families vary depending on the cultural and ethnic groups concerned.
- The definition may be quite narrow as in a "nuclear family" which includes only father, mother, and their children, or it can be rather broad as in the societies where the family is expected to be multigenerational and expanded.
- Child rearing practices vary widely as do the transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to adulthood, which may involve traditional transitional rituals.
- Counselors must be aware of the client's cultural background and its influence on his or her development.
Explain the concept of alternative families.
- Alternative families in the United States include any family that is not a nuclear family.( Single-parent families, consisting of one parent and one or more children; remarried families, which involve stepparents and may include children from several former marriages; childless couples, and gay and lesbian families which are single-sex relationships that may or may not include children.)
- All the alternative family patterns include multigenerational dynamics and other problems that may beset a nuclear family.
Define the eight theoretical concepts of the family systems theory.
To Murray Bowen, the family is an emotional unit and multigenerational family history must be considered in family counseling. His eight theoretical concepts are:
1. Differentiation of self:
The ability of a person to separate his own thinking and emotions from those of his family.
2. Nuclear family emotional system:
Four basic relationship patterns govern where problems develop in a family. They are: marital conflict, dysfunction in one spouse, impairment of one or more children, and emotional distance.
When two people have a problem with each other, one or both of them will turn to a third person.
4. Family projection process:
The primary way parents transmit their emotional problems to a child.
5. Multigenerational transmission process:
Small differences in differentiation levels between a parent and child become marked differences after several generations in a multigenerational family.
6. Emotional cutoff:
Family members reduce anxiety or stress with other family members by such mechanisms as moving away, diverting the conversation, or maintaining silence.
7. Sibling position:
Birth order affects the characteristics of a person.
8. Societal emotional process:
Each concept in Bowen's theory can be applied to such non-family groups as coworkers and social organizations.
List the 6 issues of culture and class that must be addressed in cultural counseling.
1. Normative behavior is the expected or conventional behavior in the culture of the client.
2. Structuring clearly defines the roles of the counselor and CL so that there is no misunderstanding of what is expected of each.
3. Transference is the process by which feelings, thoughts, and wishes are shifted from the client to the CO. Counter-transference is the shift from the CO to the CL. It is important that CL and CO each maintain his or her own cultural identity.
4. Language becomes a very important barrier if there is not a common language between the CO and CL.
5. Personalism is the CL getting to know the CO as a person before a professional relationship is established.
6. Diagnosis must take the CL's culture into consideration. the CO must not judge the CL's behavior on the basis of his own culture. The CO must also be aware that standardized tests are based on cultural norms and may not give a true evaluation of a person from another culture.
Give an explanation of IDEA.
IDEA is an acronym for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. The legislation provides for:
a.) Free and appropriate public education for everyone between the ages of 6 and 21.
b.) The least restrictive environment possible for handicapped individuals.
c.) An individualized education plan (IEP) for each person.
d.) Services for eligible students in private schools.
e.) Funds to communities for services to eligible children between the ages of 3 and 5.
Give examples of the differences to be aware of in working with women and men in counseling.
- Early theories of development and personality focused primarily on males and ignored females.
- More recent feminist theories focus on the marginalization and cultural, political, and economic limitations that historically have been placed on women.
- Many differences in behavior, attitudes, and expectations between men and women grow out of cultural influences rather than stem from biology.
- Specific psychological problems are more common to one sex than the other.
- Some women experience conflict because of the multiple roles expected of them. These roles include those of wife, mother, and career woman.
- Men are often socialized to be competitive, active, and emotionally unexpressive while many women are socialized to be less aggressive, more emotionally expressive, more co-operative, and nurturing.
- Men are expected to be responsible for working and supporting a family. Women are expected to be caregivers even when they also hold a job outside of the home.
- Many men deny problems and will not express feelings while many women find it easy to express their emotions.
- Many men deal with problems in a linear or sequential manner while women tend to be intuitive, global thinkers.
- The process by which a person of a minority group adopts the values, beliefs, and customs of the majority population.
- The adoption of values and behaviors by a primitive culture through contact with a more advanced culture.
The process by which immigrants or other minority groups adopt the characteristics of the dominant culture.
A form of ethnocentrism in which the person defines reality by his own set of cultural assumptions and stereotypes and is insensitive to cultural variations.
- The way a person sees and interprets the world.
- A philosophy of life made up of attitudes, values, opinions, etc.
Provide the characteristics of adults over the age of 60 and the typical issues they deal with.
- Due to the American lifestyle and healthcare, life expectancy is now 83 years and more than 12% of the population is 65 or older.
- Characteristics of older adults include some physical impairment for the majority of people by the age of 70, and for some a degree of intellectual decline.
- Depression or some other mental disorder affects approximately 10% of older adults, and many do not receive treatment for the problem.
- Older adults must deal with a number of issues concerned with aging.
- Ageism can be a major problem for older adults who want to continue working since many younger persons see them as incompetent, forgetful, and useless.
- Older adults may also be faced with the loss of family members and friends, physical problems, changes in their family situation, and retirement with more leisure time but often with less money.
Young, Attractive, Verbal, Intelligent, and Successful (the most desirable client traits).
Quiet, Ugly, Old, Indigent, Dissimilar culturally (the most undesirable client traits).
A physical or mental limitation or incapacity.
A physical or mental deficiency that limits or prevents an activity.
- An internal motivation for a behavior such as a hobby
- The motivation is based on the enjoyment of the behavior instead of a need or external influence.
Motivation for behavior based on the expectation of a reward or punishment
List the six different cultures people are part of.
A culture is made up of the customs, values, attitudes, and beliefs shared by a specific group of people. Each culture differs in some way from all the others.
All human beings belong to this grouping, since all have the asme biology and basic biological needs.
This grouping includes the physical location and climate of where a person lives.
This grouping is by the country in which a person lives.
Some countries are subdivided into regions in which details of the culture differ. Such details may involve language (dialect), food, manners, and social mores.
This grouping is determined by biological differences, including skin color and other physical features. It may be used to designate majority (superior) and minority (inferior) groups within a population.
This grouping is used to designate a social subdivision of a society or larger cultural group. It may include race, but more often refers to differences such as religious or ancestral.
A preconceived judgment or opinion. An adverse opinion or leaning formed without just grounds or before sufficient knowledge.
The belief that one race -usually one's own- is naturally superior to all others and discrimination based on that belief.
The belief that one sex -usually the male- is superior to the other and denial of opportunities and privileges to persons of the "lesser" sex.
The denial of opportunities and privileges to older persons simply because of their age.
Prejudice or hostility toward Jews.
Prejudice toward people who are overweight.
The expectation that everyone is, wants to be, or should be heterosexual.
The denial of fair treatment to people who are disabled.
The assumption that everyone has access to the income necessary to live above the poverty level.
The tendency to see the world from the viewpoint of one's own ethnic group or culture.
Biological and social factors impact a person's development. List factors in the socialization process.
Parenting styles can be varying degrees of authoritarian or permissive. Parents provide role models for their children and pass on to them ideas, ideals, values, patterns of behavior, and even habits.
Ideas and behaviors are learned from other children. Peer pressure becomes especially important for teenagers.
The neighborhood, church, and school are other sources for ideas, standards and values, beliefs, and other influences on behavior.
Television can be a strong influence with its views of different lifestyles and presentations of different behavior modes.
Gender identity usually agrees with a person's biological gender, but in some cases does not. A person starts to identify himself or herself as male or female in infancy and the identification is reinforced during adolescence.
List some of the techniques to be aware of in working with clients who are culturally different from the counselor.
(The uniqueness of each client must be respected. All people have worth and dignity. Factors as race, creed, and sex must not be used to make assumptions.)
a) Help clients reach their self-determined goals.
b) Learn about the cultures of the CLs.
c) Understand how the CL's culture interacts with the sociopolitical environment.
d) In situations where it will be helpful and not violate CL confidentiality, utilize network therapy by involving members of the CL's immediate family or community support groups.
e) Be aware of and sensitive to the role of the family in the life of the CL, especially when dealing with a culture in which strong family ties (familism) are important.
f) Recognize that the counselor may need to assume various roles, such as advocate, change agent, consultant, adviser, and facilitator when performing multicultural counseling.
g) Be aware and work to overcome personal biases, stereotypes, and prejudices.
- Systems of beliefs, values, and behaviors that are specific to a cultural group
- Unwritten rules for everyday living; standards for correct and moral behavior
- Children learn from parents and other close associates
- Guides what behaviors are expected and what is unacceptable
- Not all cultural norms have positive effects.
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