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PSY 200 CH. 2-2
Casey Carlton's PSY 200 at J Sarge Notes 2-2
Techniques for Studying the Brain
Brain Lesioning, EEG, Brain Imaging, Trans cranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
Measures electrical activity in the brain. A drawback is that it's not within the brain, only the outer layer.
Lesion or damage part of the brain and see what abilities the individual loses. (animals)
Types of Brain Imaging
CT Scans, PET Scans, MRI Scans, Functional MRI (fMRI)
X-ray of the brain that provides a 3-D picture showing structure (doesn't show function) (Drawback: radiation exposure)
Trace the glucose consumption in the brain; relates to brain activity (function)
(Magnetic resonance imaging) generally shows structure. Draw on the magnetic properties in the body. (structure)
Functional MRI (fMRI)
Series of MRI's in rapid succession (function)
Trans cranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
Creates a virtual lesion deactivating a part of the brain but only temporarily; newer technique, not brain imaging, a safe way to carry out brain liesoning
Hindbrain and Midbrain
The lower parts that are responsible for more life sustaining functions.
Parts of the Brainstem
Medulla, Pons, Reticular Formation
Breathing and heart rate (Magic Medallion)
How alert you are, influences sleep (like a coma);
Plays a role in attention to sudden changes (ADD)
All voluntary movement; coordination (bell; triangular dinner bell)
The most forward part of the brain and is considered the higher part of the brain and generally responsible to higher functions
Parts of the Limbic System
Amygdala, Hippocampus (important for memory and emotions)
related to experience of our emotions, especially survival emotions (anger, fear, aggression) (Amy; girls have emotions)
Responsible for the formation of memories (elephants & hippos because they have a good memory)
Part of the brain sensory relay station; sensory (except smell) info goes through here first and then directed to other parts of the brain (operator receiving and directing calls)
Involved in voluntary movements like habitual movements such as walking, typing, writings, etc.
Influences hunger, indirectly controls hormones; controls and influences hormones because it controls the pituitary glands (hunger & hormones)
The Cerebral Cortex
What sets humans apart from other animals; the outer layer of the brain; very integrated and always sharing information; divided into 2 hemispheres and 4 lobes
The outermost part of the cerebral cortex making up 80% of the human brain's cortex
4 Lobes of the Brain
Occipital Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Frontal Lobe, Parietal Lobe
Primarily processes VISUAL information (visual cortex; responsible for the initial processing of visual information) (optical,eye,visual)
Processes LANGUAGES in general and contains the auditory cortex (initial processing of auditory information)
In the front; planning, decision making, responsible for conscious thought
Highest mental functions possible
Processes space location; (clapping, moving around) where you are in space. Helps navigate where things are and how to get places; processes touch information
Processes information about body sensations
Processes information about voluntary movement
Throughout the cerebral cortex; integrates information (recognizes sounds and then deciding what to do)
Thick band of fibers connecting the hemispheres and allows for constant information.
Split Brain Research
Severs the Corpus Callosum (treatment for server epilepsy)
Language, Broca's Area, Wernicke's Area
Important role in the production of speech (Tan suffered from Aphasia)
Important role in the comprehension of speech.
More involved in spatial perception, emotions, visual recognition
Integration of Function
All parts of the brain are working together simultaneously