"Many African Americans migrated from the South to cities in the North to join the industrial labor force. Once there, they often received less pay than white workers in similar jobs. To protest this kind of treatment, African labor leader (...) planned a march on Washington, D.C. When President Roosevelt issued an executive order forbidding racial discrimination in the defense of industries, Randolph agreed to cancel the march." According to the textbook "Call to Freedom" on page 478.