17 terms

Fallacies

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hasty generlization
a fallacy of argument where an inference is drawn from insufficient evidence (stereotypes)
faulty casualty
a fallacy that assumes that because one event or action follows another, the first causes the second (neglects true relationship)
begging the question
a fallacy in which the claim is made on grounds that can't be accepted as true because those grounds themselves are in question (circular-reasoning)
equivocation
a fallacy of argument in which a lie is given the appearance of truth or in which the truth is misrepresented in deceptive language (half truths)
non sequitar
a fallacy of argument whose claims, reasons, or warrants don't connect logically (logical chain is missing steps)
straw man
a fallacy of argument in which an opponents position is misrepresented as being more extreme than it actually is, so that it's easier to argue against
red herring
a fallacy of argument in which the subject is changed abruptly to throw listeners or readers off the trial of the original argument
faulty analogy
a fallacy of argument in which inaccurate or inconsequential comparisons are made between objects or concepts (taken too seriously)
scare tactics
a fallacy argument that presents an issue in terms of exaggerated or untrue threats or dangers; distract from logic and reason
Either-or Choices
A fallacy of argument where a complicated issue is misrepresented as offering only two possible alternatives, one of which is often made to seem vastly preferable to the other.
Slippery Slope (are also scare tactics)
A fallacy of argument exaggerating the possibility that a relatively inconsequential action or choice today will have serious adverse consequences in the future.
Overly Sentimental Appeals
A fallacy of argument in which the appeal is based on excessive emotion.
Bandwagon Appeals
A fallacy of argument in which a course of action is recommended on the grounds that everyone else is doing it
Appeals to False Authority
a fallacy of argument in which a claim is based on the expertise of someone who lacks appropriate credentials
Dogmatism
A fallacy of argument in which a claim is supported on the grounds that it's the only conclusion acceptable within a given community.
Ad Hominem
A fallacy of argument in which a writer's claim is answered by irrelevant attacks on his or her character.
Stacking the Deck
A fallacy of argument in which the writer shows only one side of an argument.
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