Terms in this set (38)
An attempt to make sense of and explain social phenomena. Attempt to explain reality and practice. Should be internally consistent, account for data, and agree with other relevant theory. Neither "the absolute truth" nor "just another interpretation.
Preparation for specific roles or to improve one's skills. Goals generated by teacher. Potential for indoctrination? Necessary in some situations (driving).
The totality of experiences occurring within an institution or "school." Formal curriculum, extracurricular activities, "hidden-curriculum."
Tools of Inquiry
Social Theory, Training, Education, Schooling, Political Economy, Ideology
Societies jurisdiction for all political, social, and economic arrangements. The beliefs, value systems, and understanding social groups. Almost always created and articulated by the dominant group ("dominant ideology"). Embedded in ALL societies.
Social Theory (book)
Efforts to explain data about humans living together in groups of various kinds; perspectives on human association used to guide the search for information about social groups as well as to explain that information.
A term coined by the educational researcher Philip Jackson in the 1960's to describe the socializing process of schooling that are not described in formal or academic curriculum.
A durable, flexible concept that includes the social, cultural, economic, political, and demographic dimensions of society.0-96
History of Democracy
The history of social struggles by groups struggles by groups excluded from the full rights expected by "humanity." Women, slaves, immigrant workers without property, and so on are deprived from full education, or simply trained for service, as a coincidence of their distance from the centers of power. "Humanity" thus conceived is only incompletely "natural."
Is an endowment, however, that is socially constructed under conditions of privilege and property rights.
A democratic society seeks to provide the same basic eduction to all its citizens, so that all may be prepared to exercise rational judgement in ruling and being ruled, raises questions about whether our society seeks to provide a similar education to all its citizens or whether, as in feudal Europe, different kinds of education are deemed suitable for different people according to their station in life.
Inexpensive private schools. Early schooling was not required by law; it was assumed that all Athenian boys would attend in order to build their minds and bodies for virtue and wisdom. Boys attended primary school from ages about 6-14, and the curriculum consisted of gymnastics, literature, and music. Secondary schooling was from ages 14-18. From ages 18-20, military training was requires by law for all males.
Many were uneducated and unskilled. What caused most concern was their religion, Roman Catholic. To many Protestants this was almost worse than atheism. The Irish workers competed with native workers for jobs during economic distress (Recession 1837). Because of all this the Irish were met with religious bigotry, social prejudice, and occasionally mob violence.
Was rooted in classical liberalism, which had practical consequences in urban New England different from those in rural Jeffersonian Virginia.
Importance of Literacy to Early Settlers
By the turn of the 19th century only a small percentage of school-age children attended schools, even in Boston. Many of the teachers were barely literate; often they were hired because they would accept an inadequate salary. It was not unusual for a teacher to confront a large number of students ranging from 2 to 20 years old, using whatever range of texts that they brought from home. Carl Kaetle said, " American had schools, but, except in large cities, America did not have school systems."
Old Deluder Satan Law (Massachusetts 1647)
Requires households to establish support schools, "It being the chief of project of old deluder, Satan, to keep men from the knowledge of scriptures." The Massachusetts legislators believed that literacy would combat Satan's designs on the uneducated.
Difference between training and education
Training is preparing a person for a specific social or economic role and education seeks to prepare and individual for a wide range of roles.
Almost always articulated by those who derive the most power, goods, and prestige from existing social organization.
It's one thing to say that we know a lot about supporting student learning, regardless of famil background; it's another to say we know a lot about how schools can change society.
During the Common-School Era
The major development in ideology was the focus and spread of classical imperialism from intellectual leaders to the general public.
Was amended to mean that government should stand on the sidelines except when necessary for it to assist economic development
Adopted the "new discipline" of love as a classroom methodology.
Promotion of human welfare and social reforms. The two major humanitarian reforms in the early 1830s were public education and abolition. Mann supported the overturning of the state's debtor laws, humane treatment for the insane, and temperance movement.
Were poorly constructed, offering little protection from winters, artificial means to provide light, rarely could accommodate all the students, backless dangerous benches, some were without restrooms or water to drink or wash off. They were unsuitable means for any other productive use.
It was necessary for all students to develop commitment to a common core of values. Scientists would call them "modern" values. They were values that would support and sustain industrial development.
Rise of Catholic Schools
It was basically a competition between common schools and Catholic schools because Irish Catholics did not like the "common elements" practiced in the schools because they learned from the King James version of the Bible that the common school was positioned against Catholicism, and eventually they built a seperate system of parochial schools.
John Stuart (philosopher of 19th century)
He believed "Education provided by the public must be educated for all, and to be education for all it must be secular education." As a compromise the the religious conflict of public schools in the late 1840s he said that religion would be taught in public schools if it was some variant of Christianity along with the "common elements."
A system of public education with a seperation of religion and state
English public schools in late 1840s
Were racked by religious conflict between Anglicans, various dissenting Protestants sects, and Catholics.
Mann's higher education for women argument
Women would naturally love children rather than seek vengeance or justice for children when they act out. This makes women more equipped to be teachers because their loving discipline would provide them easier access to the inner psych of the students.
Human Capitol Theory
Mann's manipulation to rally citizens to believe that if your child gets an education they will become rich. The notion of schooling will promote wealth and make poor people not have to pay as much as the rich people.
Theory of Impact
An explanation of how something might cause a result. Should be testable and is a matter of culture.
Theory of Impact: Ways to impact students, your school, and society
Teachers must understand the relevant context. Culture is primary context. Teachers must bridge culture gap between school and child.
Teachers roles in Social Change
Teachers can succeed in helping students realize their full potential as learners and as people. Through the Theory of Impact and Social Foundations.
Best way to serve children with learning needs
No matter how far behind grade level one's student might be, there is strong reason to believe they are capable of learning difficult material.
It is to theorize a bit about the realities of impact: what you can actually accomplish as a teacher and how what you can accomplish is determined so greatly by what you want yo accomplish.
3 major categories of motivations
It's mostly about me.
It's mostly about the kids.
Its mostly about social change (or democracy, or social change)
Goals that are all about the kids motivation
-Becoming clear about having ambitious learning goals for their students
- Learning about what must be done in their classrooms and in the school more generally to help the students achieve those goals
-Becoming clear about how they are going to assess whether those goals are being reached