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environmental chapter 9 & 14
Terms in this set (20)
What major event began exponential growth in the human population approximately 200 years ago and why?
Death rates have declined more rapidly than birth rates. Mainly because more people have access to adequate food, clean water, and safe sewage disposal. & the discovery of vaccines helped with death rates for infants and children
What is quality of life? Why are infant mortality and life expectancy closely linked to quality of life? What factors in a society determine death rates?
Quality of life is the standard of health, comfort, and happiness experienced by an individual or group. Life expectancy is the average number of years members of a population are expected to live. Life expectancy was 40 years when the infant mortality rate was at its peak. (life expectancy - the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live infant mortality rate - the number of babies out of 1000 born who die before their first birthday) Life expectancy has increased while infant mortality has decreased. A high infant mortality rate usually indicates:
insufficient nutrition (under nutrition)
poor nutrition (malnutrition)
a high incidence of infectious disease (usually from contaminated drinking water)
What characteristics are described by a type I survivorship curve, such as one produced by humans? What types of organisms would produce type 2 and 3 survivorship curves?
type 1 wealthy developed countries, most people live till very old
type 2 have similar death rates at all ages
type 3 is a pattern
How would a logistic growth curve (S-shaped curve) represent successful population control?
Can be used to model functions that increase gradually at first, more rapidly in the middle growth period, and slowly at the end, leveling off at a maximum value after some period of time
List and describe at least 5 factors that influence fertility rates.
Importance of children as a part of the labor force- Rates tend to be higher in developing countries (especially in rural areas, where children begin working to help raise crops at an early age).
Urbanization- People living in urban areas: usually have better access to family planning services
tend to have fewer children than those living in rural areas where children are needed to perform essential tasks.
Cost of raising and educating children.
Rates tend to be lower in developed countries, where raising children is much more costly because children don't enter the labor force until their late teens or early twenties.
Educational and employment opportunities for women- TFRs tend to be low when women have access to education and paid employment outside the home.
In developing countries, women with no education generally have two more children than women with a secondary school education.
Infant mortality rate- In areas with low infant mortality rates, people tend to have less children because fewer children die at an early age.
Average age at marriage (more precisely, the average age at which women have their first child).
Women normally have fewer children when their average age at marriage is 25 or older.
Availability of private and public pension systems.
Pensions eliminate parent's need to have many children to help support them in old age.
Availability of legal abortions.
According to the UN and the World Bank, an estimated 26 million legal abortions and 20 million illegal (and often unsafe) abortions are performed worldwide each year among the roughly 190 million pregnancies per year.
Availability of reliable birth control methods.
Typical effectiveness rates of birth control methods in the US:
Religious beliefs, traditions and cultural norms.
In some countries, these factors favor large families and strongly oppose abortion and some forms of birth control.
why do developing countries exhibit more rapid population growth than developed countries?
What types of problems are likely to occur as developing nations become industrialized?
Describe the process of demographic transition with regards to death rates, birth rates, and total population growth.
Given birth rates, death rates, immigration and emigration, how can population growth rate be calculated?
How can the global population continue to grow if global birth rates are declining?
How are age structure diagrams used to predict future population growth?
What are ecosystem services? Describe several examples.
How do ecological footprint of people in developed and developing nations compare to one another?
Why has urbanization rapidly accelerated worldwide since the industrial revolution?
Why does rapid urbanization often lead to problems with infrastructure, leading to urban crisis?
What are some of the problems associated with urban sprawl?
Describe some of the strategies that can be used to promote smart growth in cities and communities.
What are some of the causes and impacts of deforestation?
Why is it important to preserve the land surrounding cities for other uses?
What is the importance of maintaining parks and preserves?
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