40 terms

Myers Psychology for AP - Unit 11

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intelligence
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score.
general intelligence (g)
a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 [thus, IQ = (ma/ca) x 100]. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group.
normal curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterion-related validity.)
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (See also content validity and predictive validity.)
Down syndrome
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
mental retardation
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
stereotype threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
Alfred Binet
the indvidual that published the first measure of intelligence in 1905. The purpose of his intelligence test was to correctly place students on academic tracks in the French school system.
Lewis Terman
professor at Stanford who revised the Binet test for Americans. The test then became the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. He is also known for his longitudinal research on gifted kids.
David Wechsler
researcher that worked with troubled kids in the 1930's in NYC. He observed that many of these kids demonstrated a type of intelligence that was much different than the type of intelligence needed to succeed in the school system (STREET SMARTS). He created tests to measure more than verbal ability.
Charles Spearman
theorist who proposed that intelligence consisted of both general intelligence, ability to do complex work like problem solve and intelligence which included specific mental abilities, ability to do verbal or math skills
L.L. Thurstone
proposed that intelligence consisted of 7 different primary mental abilities
Howard Gardner
Harvard researcher that has identified at least eight types of intelligences: linguistic, logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, spatial (visual), interpersonal (the ability to understand others), intrapersonal (the ability to understand oneself), and naturalist (the ability to recognize fine distinctions and patterns in the natural world).
triarchic theory
theory proposed by Robert Sternberg that states that intelligence consists of three parts including Analytic = the ability to solve problems, Creative = the ability to deal with new situations, and Practical = the ability to adjust and cope with one's environment
mild mental retardation
Mentally retarded individuals with an IQ range of 50-69. The largest percentage of retarded people is in this group. Adults have the mental ability of about 8-12 year olds. They can learn basic skills in school are sometimes classified as educable.
moderate mental retardation
Mentally retarded individuals with an IQ range 35-49. They can learn simple tasks, therefore are sometimes classified as trainable.
severe mental retardation
Mentally retarded individuals with an IQ range of 20-34. they score no better on IQ tests than a two or three year old.
profound mental retardation
Mentally retarded individuals with an IQ range below 20 that show almost no response to their environment.
divergent thinking
a type of thinking that is associated with creativity - seeing lots of solutions to a problem
convergent thinking
a type of thinking that is not associated with creativity - seeing one solution to a problem
Flynn effect
The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations
norming
the third stage of team development, in which team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows, and positive team norms develop
intellectual disability
(formerly referred to as mental retardation) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
James Flynn
Known for his discovery of the Flynn effect, which is the rise in average IQ scores year after year, all over the year.
William Stern
He invented the concept of an intelligence quotient (IQ)
Robert Sternberg
Sternberg proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence
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