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kinetic energy, and potential energy

the 2 types of energy (mechanical)

kinetic energy

what is energy in motion

formula for work

W=FxD, work=force x distance


measure of the rate at which work is being performed, P=W/T


unit of energy or work, 1J=1N

kinetic energy equation

KE=1/2(mv2) [2 is squared]

potential energy equation


melting point

the temperature at which a solid converts to a liquid

freezing point

the temperature at which a liquid is changed to a solid state

boiling point

temperature at which a liquid converts to a gaseous state


process in which liquid changes into the vapor state

latent heat

the amount of heat that must be added to a substance to cause a complete change of state


process in which solid molecules completely bypass the liquid state and change to a gas


the opposite of evaporation, conversion of a substance from a gas to a liquid

kelvin to celsius formula


celsius to kelvin formula


celsius to fahrenheit formula

(9/5 x C) + 32

fahrenheit to celsius formula

5/9 (f-32)

760 mmHg

the pressure of air at sea level

47 mmHg

water vapor pressure at 37C (normal body temperature)

laminar flow

fluid flow in streamlines, normally associated with the movement of fluids through tubes with smooth surfaces and fixed radii, desired flow when giving treatment to a patient

turbulent flow

movement of fluid that become chaotic and the concentric layers seen with laminar flow is lost, occurs when viscosity of fluid increases sharply, the tubes radius varies, and when the tubes surface is rough and uneven


american standard safety system


pin index safety system


diameter index safety system

50 PSI

standard working PSI in medical gas

liquid O2

the type of gas that lasts longer

conversion factor for E cylinder


conversion factor for H cylinder


conversion factor for G cylinder


minimum PSI to room outlet

50 PSI


provide O2, mainly for home use, 2 types, molecular seive and membrane

max filling/service pressure of med gas tank for E & H

2000 psi for E, 2200 psi for H, add 10% to psi if approved

color for oxygen


color for carbon dioxide


color for nitrous oxide

light blue

color for helium


color for heliox

brown and green

color for compressed air


bourdon flowmeter

pressure gauge used on E tanks

thorpe tube flowmeter

pressure gauge used for gas outlet in patient rooms, gas suspends steel ball

nasal cannula

O2 delivery device characterized by small hollow prongs that are inserted into the external nares, 1-6 L/M, low flow

venturi mask

O2 mask that uses a venturi device to provide precise concentrations of high flow O2 to a patient, a.k.a. air entrainment masks

oxygen hood

clear plastic enclosure that is placed around a pediatrics head to deliver oxygen therapy, high flow

simple O2 mask

low flow mask to deliver O2, 35% to 50% FIO2 at 5 to 10 L/ less than 5 L/M

partial-rebreathing mask

low flow O2 mask with an attached reservoir bag that allows patient to reinhale the first third of their exhaled breath, delivers FIO2 of 0.4 to 0.6 with O2 flows of 6 to 8 L/M

nonrebreather mask

low flow O2 mask similar to a partial-rebreather except they have one way valves, one between the bag and mask, and the others at the exhalation port of the mask, theoretically provide 100% O2, but in actual practice deliver an FIO2 of 0.6 to 0.8

laplace's law


boyle's law

V1P1=V2P2 or V1/V2=P2/P1, temperature is constant so they cancel out

charle's law

V1/T1=V2/T2, pressure is constant so they cancel out

gay-lussac's law

P1/T1=P2/T2, volume is constant so they cancel out

combined gas law


dalton's law

PO2=(total barometric pressure)(gas),
example PO2=(760)(0.21).....PO2=159 mm Hg

avogadro's law

6.02x10 to 23rd power

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