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Psych first exam
Chapters 1,2,4 and 5
Terms in this set (508)
The organizational principles that are evident in the paintings of Picasso and the other Cubists are
A. Gestalt principles
B. Funcitonal principles
B. Zeitgeist principles
D. Psychoanaltic principles
Artists use ____ cues to create a perception of depth on a two-dimensional surface.
Lynne is much more sensitive to sweet and bitter substances than her husband George. Lynne is best characterized as ____ and George may be considered ____.
A. normal; a nontaster
B. a supertaster; a nontaster
C. a supertaster; insenitive
D. Supersensitive; insensitive
Perceptual sets influence our perception of the environment by
A. Affecting what stimuli in the environment we can actually sense
B. Creating a slant in how we interpret sensory input
C. preventing sensory adaptation
D. preventing us from engaging in feature analysis
The fact that many Americans might be reluctant to try the Japanese delicacy of raw fish illustrates which of your text's unifying themes?
A. Psychology is empirical
B. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context
C. Behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage
D. Psychology is theoretically diverse
Perceptual constancy refers to
A. The same thing as functional fixedness
B. Our perception of objects remaining stable despite the fact that sensory information changes
C. The existence of schemas that guide our perceptions
D. Visual fields in the retina that allow our perception of the world to remain stable
Cells in the visual cortex that respond to lines of a specific width and angle of orientation that are located at any position in a receptive field are
Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of the four fundamental tastes?
Which of the following is the MOST general of the Gestalt principles describing how individual elements are grouped into higher-order figures?
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major types of cells in the visual cortex?
The fact that the words on this page tend to stand out from the paper it is printed on illustrates the Gestalt principle of
A.figure and ground.
Cells in the nervous system that respond to touch sensation convey touch information from a specific area of skin or from a
You enter a room and notice a distinctive new smell. After a bit of time you no longer smell the odor. This illustrates the phenomenon of
The binocular depth cue that relies on the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so that the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object is known as
Three people look at the same sketch and report seeing three different things. This illustrates the contribution to perception of
The cells in the visual cortex that respond to a line of the correct width, oriented at the correct angle, and located in the correct position in its receptive field are called
The explanation of the Muller-Lyer illusion that relates the lines to inside- and outside-corners accounts for the observation that people from non-Western cultures
A.are more susceptible to the illusion than people from Western cultures.
B.are less susceptible to the illusion than people from Western cultures.
C.are equally susceptible to the illusion as people from Western cultures.
D.do not perceive any visual illusions the same way as people from Western cultures.
The descending neural pathway that mediates the suppression of pain originates in the
An inference about what form or shape of an object could be responsible for a specific pattern of visual sensory stimulation is a
Which theory of hearing states that perception of pitch depends on the vibration of hair cells at different areas along the basilar membrane?
D.opponent process theory
It is fairly easy to manipulate many types of judgments by selecting
A.average comparitors that are typical.
B.extreme comparitors that may be unrepresentative.
C.comparitors that are both better and worse than the event that is being judged.
D.as many comparitors as possible that are similar to the event being judged.
Humans can hear sounds ranging in frequency from
The fovea is the area of the retina where ____ is best in large part because the fovea contains only ____.
A.peripheral vision; cones
B.peripheral vision; rods
C.visual acuity; cones
D.visual acuity; rods
When watching a wild car chase scene in a movie we can be thankful for , which allows us to experience the illusion of movement.
D.the phi phenomenon
One negative health outcome to life as a supertaster is
A.consuming fewer vegetables.
B.drinking less water.
C.consuming more sweets.
D.eating fatty food.
If the eye is compared to a camera, the role of the retina would most closely resemble the role of the
Reversible figures illustrate the observation that
A.individuals may fail to see fully visible objects.
B.expectations do not influence perceptions.
C.the same visual input can result in different perceptions.
D.there is a one-to-one correspondence between sensory input and perception.
The existence of perceptual constancies is consistent with the concept of
A.binocular depth cues.
The perception of timbre corresponds to a sound wave's
The olfactory cilia are the
A.receptors for the sense of smell.
B.receptors for the sense of taste.
C.physical stimuli for the sense of smell.
D.physical stimuli for the sense of taste.
If, in a painting, a figure of a person is drawn larger than a house, the house will seem to be ____ because of ____.
B.farther away; interposition
C.farther away; relative size
D.closer; relative size
Which of the following statements is NOT consistent with feature analysis?
A.at times, perception of form may involve bottom-up processing
B.at times, perception of form may involve top-down processing
C.feature detector cells in the visual cortex suggest that some aspects of form perception involve feature analysis
D.feature analysis starts with individual components of a form and then combines the components into more complex forms
The sensory receptors for smell are referred to as
Amanda had an operation on her eyes, but the doctors were unable to save the vision in her left eye. One major change that will affect Amanda's perception is the fact that she
A.will no longer have any perception of depth.
B.will be more likely to misinterpret perceptual illusions.
C.will no longer be able to utilize binocular depth cues.
D.will lose her ability to perceive colors accurately.
The structure of the eye that absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain is the
C.rods and cones.
Depth perception cues that result because of the differing views of the two eyes are
A.interposition depth cues.
B.accommodation depth cues.
C.monocular depth cues.
D.binocular depth cues.
Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows because the plants are closer to each other within rows than between rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
As people age, the lens of the eye loses its ability to accommodate, and it tends to remain flat instead of becoming fat and round. This suggests that as people age they will
A.lose their ability to focus on objects in the distance.
B.be less likely to detect differences in light purity.
C.be more likely to detect differences in brightness and hue.
D.lose their ability to focus on objects that are close.
The sense associated with the perception of taste is referred to as the
If you perceive _______ ______ _________ as one long line, your perception is MOST consistent with the Gestalt principle of
Which of the following is NOT a plausible explanation for the evolution of consciousness?
A.allowed for forethought and planning
B.allowed for planning of actions based on expected consequences
C.facilitated trial and error learning
D.facilitated finding food and avoiding predators
The hypothesis concerning the evolutionary bases of sleep that has the strongest support suggests that sleep evolved to help individuals
A.reduce exposure to predators.
C.reduce the risk of accidents during the night part of the day-night cycle.
D.restore energy and other bodily resources.
The observation that age-regressed hypnotized individuals recall long-ago events in a vivid but incorrect manner supports the ____ theory of hypnosis.
The debate over the mental state of a hypnotized person is
A.resolved in favor of role-playing theory.
B.still an open question.
C.resolved in favor of altered state phenomena.
D.resolved because hypnosis is fake.
Research has shown the long-term benefits of meditation to
A.include benefits for physical health such as control of blood pressure.
B.include benefits for mental health such as reducing anxiety.
C.include benefits for both physical and mental health.
D.be greatly exaggerated by advocates of meditation.
According to Sigmund Freud, conscious and unconscious processes are different
A.levels of reality.
B.levels of awareness.
C.streams of awareness.
D.streams of consciousness.
REM periods of sleep tend to ____ as the night goes on.
The fact that the importance people place on dreams varies across societies best illustrates which of the textbook's unifying themes?
A.psychology is empirical
B.psychology evolves in a socio-historical context
C.our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage
D.our experience of the world is highly subjective
Hannah used to experience insomnia once or twice a week. A month ago she starting taking Seconal to help her sleep, but now she finds she cannot get to sleep unless she takes a Seconal tablet. This would suggest that Hannah has
A.developed a drug tolerance for Seconal.
B.developed a physical dependency on Seconal.
C.habituated to the effects of Seconal.
Nathaniel's wife cannot sleep through the night. She claims that her husband seems to stop breathing in his sleep and then suddenly jerks awake, gasping for breath. This not only disturbs his sleep, it also awakens her. It is likely that Nathaniel
B.is experiencing night terrors.
C.has sleep apnea.
D.has developed pseudoinsomnia.
Circadian rhythms are biological cycles that are
A.90 minutes in length.
B.24 hours in length.
C.on a monthly cycle.
D.on a seasonal cycle.
The awareness of internal and external stimuli defines
John needs to continue to take doses of morphine to avoid withdrawal illness symptoms. John is demonstrating
Which of the following does NOT happen when a person is in a meditative state?
A.alpha waves become more prominent in EEG recordings
B.heart rate decreases
C.oxygen consumption increases
D.respiration rate decreases
Insomnia is BEST defined as referring to
A.chronic difficulties in remaining asleep.
B.chronic difficulties in falling asleep.
C.chronic problems in getting adequate sleep.
D.occasional problems in getting adequate sleep.
Gunther is a news anchor who just flew east from San Diego to Paris, crossing eight time zones. Based on what is known about jet lag, Gunther will most likely
A.take about four days to adjust to the new time zone.
B.take 48 hours to adjust to the new time zone.
C.not experience any jet lag because he has flown west to east.
D.take just over a week to adjust to the new time zone.
The theorist who advanced the cogngtive, problem-solving view of dreaming was
Which of the following is NOT a common effect of hypnosis?
A.auditory and visual hallucinations
B.the reduction of inhibitions
C.some resistance to pain
D.total loss of personal control
Signals sent from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to the pineal gland have been implicated in
B.causing one to dream.
C.alpha rhythm generation.
D.resetting circadian rhythms.
Sleep apnea is characterized by
A.a sudden, irresistible urge to sleep during normal waking hours.
B.a reflexive gasping for air during sleep.
C.an extremely low rate of REM.
What did William James mean by his term "the stream of consciousness"?
A.consciousness always remains at the same level
B.consciousness never stops
C.consciousness is always changing
D.consciousness is beyond personal control
Which of the following statements about culture and dreams is LEAST accurate?
A.some basic dream themes appear to be nearly universal across cultures
B.people in Western societies tend to recall their dreams vividly
C.in many cultures, dreams are seen as a window into the spiritual world
D.in Western cultures, dreams are largely considered insignificant
Peter is in a deep sleep and his brain wave pattern consists of low frequency delta waves. Peter is experiencing which stage of sleep?
B.stage 3 or 4
Denise is unemployed. Over the past three years she has been fired from 10 different positions. If you interpreted Denise's dream of being the CEO of a Fortune 500 company as an attempt for Denise to fulfill ungratified needs from her waking life, you would be subscribing to the
A.problem-solving theory of dreams.
B.activation-synthesis theory of dreams.
C.wish-fulfillment theory of dreams.
D.neural overflow hypothesis of dreams.
Which of the following techniques is used MOST often to measure the relationship between consciousness and activity in the brain?
In the physiological domain, research has suggested meditation may help with all of the following EXCEPT
A.regulating hormone levels.
B.controlling blood pressure.
C.reducing chronic pain.
D.improving cardiovascular health.
The four basic EEG patterns are
A.alpha, beta, gamma, delta.
B.beta, theta, omega, gamma.
C.theta, delta, beta, omega.
D.alpha, beta, theta, delta.
Research has shown that meditation can produce a physiological state similar to
A.the REM stage of sleep.
B.that produced by hypnosis.
C.systematic relaxation training.
D.a drug-induced trance.
Consciousness includes awareness of all of the following EXCEPT
The idea that dreams are times when people can think creatively about what is going on in their lives and then use that information later when awake is consistent with _________ view of dreams.
C.Hobson and McCarley's
Common side effects of ____ include mood swings, quarrelsomeness, and impaired mental and motor functioning.
The possible theory as to why humans need REM and slow wave sleep focuses on the possibility that they contribute to
A.keeping the individual safe from predators.
B.the firming up of the learning that took place during that day.
C.impairing the individuals creative response.
D.helping the individual keep their body temperature low.
Research suggests that about ____ of the population does not respond to hypnosis.
The twenty-four hour biological cycles found in humans and other species are known as
The tendency to equate naming something with explaining it is known as the
A.development of tolerance.
The procedure used by a hypnotist that relaxes an individual and increases his/her attention and suggestibility is called a
Renee is experiencing distortions in her sensory and perceptual processes. Additionally, she is exhibiting paranoia, nausea, and "jumbled" thought processes. Renee is MOST likely under the influence of a
Meditation has its roots in
D.the scientific study of the relaxation response.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a direct effect health-related risk associated with recreational drugs?
A.marijuana can increase the risk of respiratory disease
B.sedatives and alcohol can increase the risk of automobile accidents
C.cocaine can increase the risk of heart attacks
D.alcohol can increase the risk of liver damage
What percentage of the population would be considered "hypnotic virtuosos"?
A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the rats' maze-running performance is the
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that caffeine improves student's performance on tests. Subjects in the experimental group drank three cups of coffee and then took a test on Monday or Tuesday. Subjects in the control group drank only water prior to the test, which occurred on Wednesday and Thursday. What is the dependent variable?
B.the day of the week
The scientific method's clarity and precision is to operational definitions as its intolerance of error is to
Your text mentions several Internet-mediated studies. What is the most common type of study conducted over the Internet?
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. What is the independent variable?
B.day of the week
D.the mood (degree of happiness)
If the correlation coefficient between amount of exposure to television violence and aggressive behavior was found to be +0.43, we could conclude that
A.watching television violence tends to cause aggressive behavior.
B.being an aggressive person tends to cause one to watch more violent television.
C.people who watch the most television tend to be the least aggressive.
D.there is a positive relationship between these two variables.
If a psychologist hopes that his research will help to solve some practical problem, his hope reflects which goal of science?
A.application and control
B.construction and revision
C.understanding and prediction
D.measurement and description
An instructor is concerned about class attendance and decides to find out what proportion of students miss class regularly. He distributes a questionnaire that asks students to indicate how many classes they have missed. Which of the common methodogical problems is he particularly likely to encounter?
B.possible placebo effects
C.problems with self-report data
Mrs. Smith predicts that the girls in her class will learn more than the boys during the school year. Her prediction is a(n)
Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
The two main types of research methods used in psychology are the
A.experimental and descriptive/correlational research methods.
B.experimental and case study research methods.
C.descriptive and correlational research methods.
D.descriptive/correlational and case study research methods.
In experimental research, while subjects in the ____ group received some special treatment in regard to the independent variable, subjects in the ____ group did not.
The Internet has changed many aspects of modern life, including the way scientists do research. Of the various methods of research discussed throughout this chapter, Internet-mediated research includes
D.all of the above
In descriptive/correlational research, the investigator
A.systematically observes two variables to see whether there is an association between them.
B.manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether there are changes in a second variable as a result.
C.exposes subjects to two closely related treatment conditions.
D.simultaneously manipulates two or more independent variables.
Which of the following is NOT a descriptive/correlational research method?
The data obtained in a research study, along with the statistical analyses, are reported in the
A.introduction section of a journal article.
B.results section of a journal article.
C.method section of a journal article.
D.discussion section of a journal article.
Which of the following statements concerning anecdotal evidence is FALSE?
A.anecdotal evidence is based on a single example and may therefore reflect sampling bias
B.anecdotal evidence rarely influences a person's opinion or behavior
C.anecdotal evidence can usually be found to support any position
D.anecdotal evidence often reflects a distortion in self-report
What procedure helps correct for experimenter bias?
A.extraneous or confounding variables
B.sleep learning or hypnosis
C.a higher standard for statistical significance
D.use of the double-blind procedure
With regard to the topic of deception in research with human subjects, which of the following is MOST accurate?
A.researchers are careful to avoid deceiving subjects
B.some topics could not be investigated unless deception was used
C.it has been empirically demonstrated that deception causes severe distress
D.all psychological research must involve some deception
The advantages offered by Internet-mediated research include
A.larger more diverse samples.
B.reduced time and money spent collecting data.
C.samples from special populations difficult to obtain through traditional research.
D.all of the above
The school of psychology that emphasizes unique qualities of people compared to other animals is
While Freud might explain an individual's depression by focusing on the person's unconscious thoughts, a physiological psychologist might focus instead on a chemical imbalance in the brain. This difference in explanations BEST illustrates the text's unifying theme of
A.psychology evolves in a socio-historical context.
B.heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
C.psychology is theoretically diverse.
D.psychology is empirical.
Which of the following psychologists would be MOST likely to stress that each person has a drive to grow and fulfill his or her own potential?
C.G. Stanley Hall
The text's unifying theme that "psychology is theoretically diverse" implies that
A.psychology has not, as yet, focused on empirical observations.
B.there are often several ways to interpret a set of observations.
C.psychology focuses on unrelated observations.
D.psychology is failing in the goal of being a science.
In everyday life people usually think of a behavior as having ______, while in contrast psychology views behavior as having _______.
A.a subjective cause; an objective cause
B.an objective cause; a subjective cause
C.multiple causes; a single cause
D.a single cause; multiple cause
Psychologists who are MOST likely to conduct research studies using animals are those who have a ________ perspective.
Dr.Rice believes that it is not possible to fully understand emotions unless we understand the purpose that the conscious experiences associated with emotions play in survival and adaptation. Dr. Rice's views are MOST consistent with those of
It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by
The field of applied psychology did not become part of mainstream psychology until after _______ due to founding psychologists' dim view of it.
A.World War I
B.World War II
D.beginning of the 20th century
Which of the following schools of psychology was MOST influential in increasing the use of animals in psychological research?
The psychologist who would be MOST likely to study rats in a laboratory setting would be a
The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of consciousness is
The text's suggestions for improving academic performance by improving your reading, getting more out of lectures, and improving test-taking strategies are consistent with the application of ________ thinking skills.
Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as an effective study technique?
A.set up a schedule for studying
B.concentrate your study time immediately before an exam
C.study in a place where distractions are minimal
D.break major assignments down into smaller component tasks
During the last few decades people have become more aware of the sexual abuse of children by adults, and psychologists have devoted more research attention to the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. These observations BEST reflect which unifying theme in psychology?
A.psychology evolves in a socio-historical context
B.behavior is determined by multiple causes
C.psychology is theoretically diverse
D.people's experience of the world is highly subjective
Critical thinking refers to
A.analysis of problems in terms of scientific principles.
B.making decisions based on formal and informal logic.
C.thinking that includes consideration of conflicting interpretations.
D.all of the above
Professor Smith is an S-R psychologist because she is interested in studying stimulus-response relationships. Another title given to such psychologists is
Which of the following psychologists had great influence on the work of B.F. Skinner?
C.both Pavlov and Watson
D.neither Pavlov nor Watson
Topics such as courage, tolerance, creativity, and integrity reflect the interest of the positive psychology movement on the study of positive
C.institutions and communities.
Applied psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with
A.the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems.
B.mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
C.unique qualities of people.
Who was the founder of psychology?
What country dominated early psych labs?
Wundt thought that psychology should study __________
the elements of consciousness
emotions, moods, feelings, behavior, cognition
problem with Wundt's perspective
Most of what goes on around us is well beyond our conscious awareness
What did structuralists want to know?
the structures of consciousness
What field of science did structuralists take their philosophy from?
structuralists used ________
problem with Structuralists
cannot measure the consciousness
What did functionalists want to know?
the function or purpose of the consciousness
functionalists believed in a ______ of consciousness
Functionalists based their theory on __________
Darwin's theory of natural selection
Three main advocates of psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler
2 things Freud thought were unconscious determinants
early childhood experiences and motives like death and sex
Freud was right that ________
the unconscious drives behavior
Behaviorists thought, in contrast with the psychoanalysts, that you should study ________
only observable events
three main advocates of behaviorism
John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner
______'s boast: give me 12 children to raise in my own world and I will make 6 successful and 6 thieves
Pavlov discovered _______
Skinner discovered ________
three main advocates of the cognitive revolution
Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, and Herbert Simon
Basic principle of the cognitive revolution:
mental processes are "moderators" of behavior
uses both cognitive processes and environment to explain behavior
psychology fields include ___ fields and _____ fields
research based; applied
connecting to previous research increases ______
3 major studies:
descriptive, correlational, and experimental
correlation does NOT equal ______
goal of an experiment
whether one variable causes change in another variable
dependent variable is measured by the dependent
goal of correlational research
whether there is an association between two variables
when will you do correlational research
when an experiment is not possible
3 main types of descriptive research
surveys, observation, and case studies
3 characteristics of light
amplitude, wavelength, and purity
insects can see ______ rays
Fish and reptiles can see _____ rays
_____ is the outside protection of the eye
_____ focuses the light onto the retina
Retina is ______
neural tissue that processes images and sends visual info to the brain
______ is the muscle that adjusts the pupil
___ and _____ are specialized neurons in retinal tissue
rods are used to see in the ____
cones are used to see in the ____
cones help with ___ and ____ ____
visual; color acuity
_______ sends information through the retina into the brain
the optic disk is also called the ___ ____
information from the retinal gets sent to the ____ in the ____
primary visual cortex; occipital lobe
how does information from the retina get to the brain?
axons leave from both eyes and cross over at the optic chasm
seeing a certain pattern or visual image because you expected to see it
feature analysis definition
taking basic elements and bring them together as a whole
feature analysis is also called _______
Most of the information processing comes from the process of our _______
5 Gestalt principles
proximity, closure, similarity, simplicity, and continuity
the _____ helps collect sound waves
what sends information from the ear to the brain
hair cells around the basilar membrane
who had place theory
who had frequency theory
who had traveling wave theory
traveling wave theory definition
combination of both place and frequency theory
taste buds are at the ______ of the tongue
where does taste information go
four main tastes
sweet, salty, bitter, and sour
four layers of the skin
epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat, and touch receptors
4 pictured receptors
stimulation, warmth, cold, and pain
two pain pathways
fast and slow
what two sciences did psychology come from?
philosophy and physiology
Where did Willhelm wundt set up his first lab?
University of Leipzig
When was psychology's "Date of birth"?
when did Willhelm Wundt establish the first psychology journal?
According to Wundt, what did psychology become the study of?
the conscious experience
What were the first two major schools of thought?
functionalism and structuralism
Who began structuralism?
Who did Titchener study under?
Most of the structuralists' work concerned ______.
Who began functionalism?
Most influential book in psychological history? (Name; date; author)
Principles of Psychology; 1890; William James
Who first argued for the "stream of consciousness" ?
Who were the four main advocates of functionalism?
William, James, G. Stanley Hall, James Mckeen Castell, and John Dewey
Who were the first 3 women psychologists?
Mary Whiton Calkins, Maragaret Floy Washburn, and Leta Stetter Hollingworth
What did Margaret Floy Washburn write?
The Animal Mind (1908)
Who was the first woman on the board of the APA?
Mary Whiton Calkins
Who was the first psychologist to used the word "gifted" children?
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
What two new schools of thought grew out of functionalism?
Behaviorism and applied psychology
Who began psychoanalysis?
Who discovered the unconscious?
_______ contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness.
Through the unconscious, Freud concluded that:
psychological disturbances are largely caused by personal conflicts
________ explains how personality, motivation, and mental disorders are all caused by unconscious determinants of behavior.
_______ is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
Who founded behaviorism?
John B. Watson
Watson discarded psychoanalysis because he thought the study of the unconscious was _________.
not verifiable, and was therefore not scientific
What school of thought was fundamentally opposed to psychoanalysis?
in the nature v. nurture debate, Watson would argue fully for ______.
Behaviorists study __________ psychology.
the s-r approach led to the rise of __________.
Skinner's fundamental principle:
organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and vice versa
Skinner's followers eventually began to apply animal control to _______.
research human behaviors
Humanists thought that psychoanalysis and behaviorism were _______.
Humanists thought that prior schools of thought failed ________.
to recognize the unique qualities of human behavior
Humanist's emphasized human's ____ and _________.
freedom; potential for personal growth
Humanists take an ________ view on human nature.
Two main advocates for humanism
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers argued that human behavior is governed by ________.
a sense of self that animals lack
Humanists asserted that psychologists must take into account _______.
Human's basic need for personal growth
Carl Rogers started a new psychotherapy called _________.
The idea that behavior can't be understood without knowing how people acquire, store, and process info belongs to the _________.
The idea that human and animals' function is explained by bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behavior belongs to the ______.
The idea that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success belongs to the ________.
What is the subject of behaviorism?
The effects of the environment on humans
What is the subject of psychoanalysis?
The unconscious determinants of behavior
What is the subject of humanism?
The unique aspects of humans
What is the subject of cognitive psychology?
The thoughts, and mental processes that are "moderators" of behavior
What is the subject of biological psychology?
The physiological bases of human and animal behavior
What is the subject of evolutionary psychology?
The evolutionary bases of human and animal behavior
Four main advocates of biological psychology:
James Olds, Roger Sperry, David Hubel, and Torstein Weisel
Five main advocates of evolutionary psychology:
David Buss, Martin Daly, Margo Wilson, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby
________ Is the branch of psychology concerned with everyday practical problems.
Applied psychology wasn't accepted until _____
World War II
The first applied arm of psychology to be accepted was ____.
Modern psychologists showed renewed interest in ________ and _________
cognition; biological behavior
cognition reemerged in the ____ and _____
_______ theorists argue that psychology must include the study of internal events to fully understand human behavior.
Many think the ________ has emerged as the dominant modern perspective
Roger Sperry's discovery
the right and left sides of the brain handle different mental tasks
_______ and _______ presented work on how visual signs are processed in the brain
David Hubel; Torsten Weisel
Two reasons why Western psychologists have started taking a cultural perspective into account:
Advances in communication and international trade and the ethnic makeup has become more multicultural
__________ examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
evolutionary psychology gained footing in ______
Who began the positive psychology movement?
Martin's Seligman's perspective on why other schools of thought were wrong
they focused too much on suffering that they missed the forces that make life worth living
four main advocates of positive psychology
Martin Seligman, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Christopher Peterson, and Barbara Frederickson
________ uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, and fufilling aspects of the human existence
Three areas of interest in positive psychology
positive subjective experiences, positive individual traits, positive institutions and communities.
______ is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
APA was founded in ____.
five major professional specialties:
clinical, counseling, industrial, school, clinical neuropsychology, and forensic
seven themes of psychology
it is empirical, it is theoretically diverse, it evolves in a sociohistorical context, behavior is shaped by cultural heritage, behavior is determined by multiple causes, heredity and environment both influence behavior, people's experience of the world is highly subjective
_________ evaluate, diagnose, and treat individuals
______ work with everyday problems
_______ treat people with cetral nervous system dysfunctions due to head trauma, stroke, dementia, etc.
______ apply psychological principles to issues in the legal systems
_____ is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
_____ is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
______________ means that behavior is governed by a complex network of interacting factors
multifactional causation of behavior
_____ is the widely shared beliefs, customs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations
_____ emphasized a dual nature in culture
dual parts of culture
external and internal
_______ is what the scientific method is designed to counteract
_______ is the ability to used the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize one's score
true/false? in the long run, changing answers always pays off
__________ assumes that events are governed by some lawful order
three interrelated goals of scientists:
measurement and description, understanding and prediction, application and control
first goal of psychology:
to develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behavior clearly
psychologists can understand events when __________
they can explain why it occurs
_______ is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more vairables
______ are any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study
once scientists understand something, they can ______
exert more control over it
today, psychology attempts to apply research findings to _____
problems in everyday life
______ permit us to leap from the description of behavior to the understanding of behavior
4 steps in the scientific method
formulate a hypothesis, select a research method and design the study, collect the data, analyze the data and draw conclusions, report the findings
______ is the belief in one's own objectivity and the opponent's subjectivity
What does step 2 do in the scientific method
creates a way to put a hypothesis to an empirical test
_______ are procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
data collecting techniques
6 data collection techniques:
direct observation, questionnaire, interview, psychological test, physiological recording, examination of archival records
two major advantages of the scientific approach:
clarity and precision and relative intolerance of error
_______ is a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
_________ are any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable
extraneous variables occur within the ______ and _____ groups
_______ is used as a safeguard to control extraneous variables
_______ are two variables that are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
major advantage of an experiment
permits conclusions about cause-effect relationships
major disadvantage of an experiment
often artificial because they require so much control
difference between experiments and correlational research
researchers cannot manipulate the variables
_______ is a statistic that summarizes the descriptive research (r)
a correlation exists when _______
two variables are related to each other
correlation coefficient measures the strength of the association through a numerical value between ______
the closer the correlation is to -1 or 1, the _____ the association
as correlation increases, the ability to predict one variable based on knowledge of the other variable _____
correlation shows us that two variables are related, but not ____
correlation does not provide _____
__________ is a method in which a researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
in naturalistic observation, behavior is allowed to ________
unfold naturally in its natural environment
advantage of naturalistic observation:
less artificial than experiments
______ can be a good starting point when little is known about the subject
disadvantage of naturalistic observation
_______ is when a subject's behavior is altered by the presence of an observer
______ is an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
2 case study data collection techniques
interview and examination of records
advantage of case studies
provide real life illustrations that support a hypothesis
disadvantage of case studies
_______ are questionnaires or interviews used to gather information about specific aspects of participants' background and behavior
disadvantage of surveys
self report data
gives researchers a way to explore questions they could not examine with an experiment and broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study
the advantages of correlational research
2 disadvantages of correlational research
cannot control events and cannot demonstrate causal relationships
why do scientists replicate findings
to get rid of error and purge wrong findings
_______ the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicate
______ is a collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
_______ is a large collection of people/animals (from which a sample is drawn_ that the researchers want to generalize about
when does sampling bias occur?
When a sample is not representative of the population
_______ occurs when participants' expectations lead them to experience some change even tough they receive empty, false, or ineffectual treatment
_______ is a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
social desirability bias
three distortions in self-report data
social desirability bias, misleading questions, memory loss
____ is when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
how can experimenter bias be neutralized?
____ is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave
light varies in:
amplitude, wavelength, and purity
_____ is the relative amount of whiteness in a color
two purposes of the eye
to channel light to receiving neural tissue and to house neural tissue
______ occurs when the curvature of the lens adjusts to alter visual focus
What is affected by nearsightedness?
distant objects are blurry
Why does nearsightedness occur?
eyeball is too long
What is affected by farsightedness?
close objects are blurry
Why does farsightedness occur?
eyeball is too short
____ is a clouded lens
_____ is the opening in the center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye
____ absorbs light, processes images, and send visual images back to the brain
____% of light reaches retinal receptors
two types of retinal receptors:
rods and cones
_____ is a spot in the center of the retina that only has cones
_____ is the process in which the eyes become more sensitive in low illumination
____ adapt quicker to light than ____
____ is a collection of axons that connect the eye with the brain
____ is the point at which the axons from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
____% of axons carrying visual info go to to the thalamus and LGN
Once visual images are processed in the LGN, they are sent to the _______
primary visual cortex
LGN stands for
Lateral geniculate nucleus
____% of axons carrying visual info go to the superior colliculus in the midbrain before traveling through the thalamus to the occipital lobe
three major cells in the primary visual cortex
simple, complex, hypercomplex
_____ will only respond to a line of the correct width, oriented at the correct angle, and located in the correct position in the receptive field
____ will respond to any position in the receptive field, but they have to be of the correct width and oriented at the correct angle
____ are the most particular about the length of a stimulus line
all three cells in the primary visual cortex are called ______
____ processes the details of "what" objects (form and color)
____ processes the "where" of objects (motion and depth)
longest color wavelength is ___ and the shortest is ___
humans can discriminate roughly ____ colors
_____ is the removal of some light wavelengths, leaving less light than before
subtractive color mixture
____ is the superimposition of lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light itself
additive color mixture
______ states that the human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths
Who first stated the trichromatic theory?
Who modified the trichromatic theory?
Hermann Von Hemholtz
In the trichromatic theory, which three colors are the sensors specialized to?
red, green, and blue
colorblindness fits in well with the _____
colorblindness occurs more frequently in ____
most color blind victims are only ____
Why does colorblindness support the trichromatic theory?
People are only deficient in either red, green, or blue
trichromatic theory can't account for _____
complementary after images
_____ is an image that persists after a stimulus is removed
the color of an afterimage will be the ______ of the color you stared at
_____ states that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors
opponent process theory
red's opponent color
yellow's opponent color
black's opponent color
In the end, psychologists concluded that the best color vision they is _____
Who showed that the eye has three types of cones?
____ is a drawing that is compatible with two difference interpretations that can shift back and forth
the same visual input can result in ____
very different perceptions
_____ is a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
____ is the failure the see fully visible objects or events in a visual display because one's attention is focused elsewhere
____ is perceptions of form and pattern that involve bottom-up processing
Basic assumption of the Gestalt principles
a whole can be greater than the sum of its parts
_____ is the illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession
Who described the phi phenomenon? (and date)
Max Wertheimer in 1912
5 Gestalt principles
proximity, closure, continuity, similarity, and simplicity
____ is an inference about what form could be responsible for a pattern of sensory stimulation
____ is the interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are
2 types of depth perception cues
binocular and monocular
____ are clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes
What is the principal binocular cue?
____ is the fact that objects within 25 ft project images to slightly different locations to the right and left retinas, so the eyes see different views of the object
____ are clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone
What are the two kinds of monocular cues?
active and pictorial
___ are used when your eye accommodates to objects coming closer
active monocular cues
___ are cues about distance in a flat picture
pictorial monocular cues
6 pictorial depth cues
linear perspective, texture gradients, interposition, relative size, height in plane, and light and shadow
____ is a tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input
perceptual constancies help impose ________
order on a continually changing world
____ involve an apparently inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of a visual stimulus and its physical reality
when two diagonal lines enclose two horizontal lines of the same length, but the higher line looks longer is called the _______
_____ are objects that can be represented in 2-d pictures but cannot exist in space
sound waves are ______
vibrations of molecules
3 characteristics of sound waves
amplitude, wavelength, and purity
sound wavelengths are described in terms of their ____
sound waves are measured in ____
higher sound frequencies equal higher ____
greater amplitude equals greater ____
sound amplitude is measured in
perceived loudness doubles every ____ dB
exposure to sound over ____ dB can impair hearing
sound purity influences ____
the purest sound has _____ frequency of vibration
3 sections of the human ear:
external, middle, and inner
external ear depends on _____
the vibration of air molecules
Middle ear depends on ___
the vibration of movable bones
inner era depends on ___
waves in a fluid
the external ear consists mainly of the ___
the pinna funnel down sound waves into the ____
the three tiny bones in the middle ear are called the ____
the three parts of the ossicles include:
hammer, anvil, and stirrup
inner ear consists mainly of the ___
____ is a fluid filled, coiled tunnel that contains receptors for hearing
sound enters the cochlea through the ______
the ear's neural tissue is in the ___
the ear's neural tissue sits on the ____
_____ holds the auditory receptors called hair cells that run the length of the spiraled cochlea
sound waves are routed through the _____ and into the ____ in the _____
thalamus; auditory cortex; temperal lobes
most theories of hearing really only cover ____
____ states that the perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places, along the basilar membrane
the place theory was coined by ____
Hermann von Helmholtz
_____ states that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates
0-1000 Hz are translated through ____
1000-5000 Hz are translated through ______
both place and frequency
5000+ Hz are translated through ______
taste is called the _____ system
_____ are clusters of taste cells found in taste buds
taste signals are routed through the ______ to the _____ in the _____
thalamus; insular cortex; frontal lobe
nontasters are determined by their ______
insensitivity to PTC
women are more likely to be ___tasters than men
_____ is the gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation
Smell is called the _____ system
receptors for smell are called ____
_____ is the only sensory system that is not routed through the thalamus before it projects onto the cortex
Smell is routed to the _____ in the ____
olfactory cortex; temporal lobe
humans have around ____ different types of olfactory receptors
within __ minutes the perceived strength of an odor fades to half
human skin is saturated with __ types of sensory receptors
touch routes through the ____ and onto the _____ in the _____
thalamus; somatosensory cortex; parietal lobes
3 places the bulk of the touch cortex is devoted to:
fingers, lips, and tongue
receptors for pain are mostly ______ in the skin
free nerve endings
the subjective nature of pain can be demonstrated by the ______
_______ states that incoming pain sensations must pass through a "gate" in the spinal cord that can be closed, thus blocking pain signals
gate control theory
Who came up with the gate control theory?
Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall
____ are the body's own natural morphinelike painkillers
pain-blocking theory other than gate control theory
descending neural pathway into the midbrain that mediates the suppression of pain
certain types of _____ cells may contribute to the moderation of pain
4 different types of awareness:
external, internal, self, and thoughts
true/false: people maintain some awareness during sleep or while under anesthesia
we developed consciousness to ____
live on to reproduce
one theory for why we developed consciousness
forethought and planning helped us get food, avoid predators, and find a mate
The most commonly used indicator of variations in consciousness is the ____
____ is a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time
EEGS vary in ____ and ____
4 principal bands of brain wave activity:
alpha, beta, theta, and delta
_____ are periodical fluctuations in physiological functioning
_____ are the 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species
four major physiological functions of circadian rhythms
regulate sleep, blood pressure, urine production, and hormonal secretions
It is easier to fly _____ than ____
_____ records muscle activity and tension during sleep
_____ records eye movements during sleep
____ records heart contractions during sleep
During sleep, people cycle through __ stages
It takes an average of ___ minutes to fall asleep
Stage ___ of sleep is a transitional stage of light sleep that lasts 10-12 minutes
in stages ____ your respiration and heart rate, muscle tension and body temperature decrease
2,3, and 4
slow-wave sleep occurs during stage(s) _____
3 and 4
during slow-wave sleep, ___ waves become prominent
the word REM was coined by ____
you experience irregular breathing and pulse rate during _____
people usually repeat the sleep cycle ___ times a night
REM is ___% sleep time for babies and ___% for adults
3 basic patterns of insomnia:
can't fall asleep, can't stay asleep, early-morning awakening
____-___% of adults suffer from insomnia
insomnia is ___% more common in women than in men
2 common medical treatments of insomnia
benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine
____ is a disease marked by sudden and irressistable onsets of sleep during normal waking periods
narcolepsy affects ____% of the population
____ is frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person from sleep
____ is another word for sleepwalking
sleepwalking occurs in ___% of children and ___% of adults
sleepwalking only occurs during the first ___ hours of sleep
dreams center on sources of ____
the idea that worries of the day spill into dreams reflects ____ concept of ____
Freud's; day residue
who came up with the dream theory of wish fufillment?
Who came up with the dream theory of problem-solving?
problem-solving theory of dreaming is supported by research in ___
Who came up with the dream theory that dreams are simply the by-product of bursts of activity emanating from subcortical areas of the brain?
the idea that dreams are only the by-product of bursts of activity is also called ___
Who began hypnosis?
Franz Anton Mesmer
Mesmer didn't fully explore hypnotism, he just stumbled upon ____
Who popularized hypnotism in 1843?
James Braid thought hypnotism could be used as ____
anesthesia in surgeries
_____ is a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility
Hypnotists use suggestion as a method of ___
4 most prominent hypnotic phenomena:
anesthesia, hallucinations, disinhibition, and amnesia
3 main advocates of the role playing hypnotic theory:
Theodore Barber, Nicholas Spanos, and Irving Kirsch
Main advocate of altered state of consciousness hypnotic theory:
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