7 terms

A&P 1 body orientation and direction (UTT)

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Terms in this set (...)

superior/inferior
(Above/Below)
(Used in regards to humans)
Placement of a structure along the long axis of the body. [EX: nose is superior to the mouth, the abdomen is inferior to the chest]
anterior/posterior
(Front/back) Most (human) anterior structures are those that are most forward - face/chest/abdomen/palms forward.
Posterior structures are those towards the BACK side of the body.
[EX: spine is posterior to the heart]
medial/lateral
(Toward the midline / away from the midline or median plane)
[EX: The sternum (breastbone) is medial to the ribs, the ear is lateral to the nose]
cephalad (cranial)/caudal
Assume the person is in anatomical position
(Toward the head/ toward the tail)
In humans- these terms are used interchangeably with superior and inferior.
In animals- superior is a synonymous with ANTERIOR and inferior is synonymous with POSTERIOR.
ventral/dorsal
(Belly side / backside)
(Used for the anatomy of animals)
Ventral = bellyside
Dorsal = backside (think dorsal fin on a shark)
Proximal/distal
Near the trunk or attached end/ farther from the trunk or point of attachment with SURFACE AREA
- mainly used in regards to body limbs (arms & legs)
[EX: the fingers are distal to the elbow and the knee is proximal to the toes]
*these terms may also be used when talking about INTERNAL regions; closer to or farther from the head or heart.
Superficial (external) / deep (internal)
(Towards or at the body surface/ away from the body surface - deep within)
*superficial = think superficial when it comes to looks. Looks = physical appearance = body surface
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