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Civics Who Influenced the Founding Fathers
Terms in this set (27)
a time of change in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries when philosophers focused on reason as a way to solve problems.
English philosopher who added to Thomas Hobbes' idea of social government by arguing that people have natural rights. Locke believed that if government failed to protect people's natural rights, that broke the social contract, and people could break off from that government and start a new one.
rights people have by virtue of being human; cannot be taken away or even given up; Life, Liberty, and Property; often include free speech, freedom of religion, protection against torture, protection in court
Baron de Montesquieu
believed government should have separation of powers. Government would be divided into sections (usually, legislative, executive, and judicial (courts).
Greek & Latin
two languages that men had to study at the time
country that gave us the model for democracy
country that gave us the model for republican government, as well as the idea for an elected legislature
wrote about social contract theory; believed that rulers should have absolute power; without government, people would work against each other and hurt each, and they form a contract with an absolute authority, who will provide safety and security
social contract theory
government is created as an agreement between the leaders and the people.
Hobbes argued that people need protection, and so had to agree to submit to absolute leaders who would provide safety and security.
Locke argued that people had -- by virtue of being human -- natural rights-- and the social contract was formed between people (who agreed to support a form of government) and government (who agreed to provide safety and security, and protection natural rights).
Locke believed that if government failed to protect people's natural rights, that broke the social contract, and people could break off from that government and start a new one.
Locke believed that if government failed to protect people's natural rights, that broke the social contract, and people could break off from that government and start a new one. The old government would no longer be _____________
Thomas Hobbes quote
Who might said the following?
"A social contract or unspoken agreement exists between the government or ruler and the people.
In that contract, the people agree to give up certain powers to the ruler. In return, the government ruler promises to keep society safe from lawlessness."
True or false: Hobbes acknowledges that the social contract is unspoken, but that it has the force of law. It is between the leader and the people.
Who might have said the following:
"All people have certain 'natural rights,' including life, liberty, and the right to own property. These are never given to a ruler, even in a social contract.
All governments rule only with the consent of the people they govern. If rulers become cruel or unfair, citizens have a duty to stop them."
It means that Washington wanted the government to protect the natural rights of people--and the we would welcome immigrants from all over the world.
"I had always hoped that this land might become a safe and agreeable asylum* to the virtuous and persecuted part of mankind, to whatever nation they might belong."--George Washington
What does this mean?
This means that the "will of the majority" is exercised through voting and other forms of political activity. In a democracy, the majority rules. However, the rights of people who might disagree with the majority are also protected.
"All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority* is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression."
- Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1801
What does this mean?
when a leader abuses and monopolizes power
to have an effect on something (so, the Enlightenment philosophers had an influence on the Founders)
primary writer of the Declaration of Independence (but not as involved in writing the Constitutional)
Enlightenment philosophers tended to argue that people could __________--they could decide what their interests or goals were, and they could choose they could make their own choices (political or otherwise)
a member of a colony; often used to describe on of the inhabitants of the 13 British colonies that became the United States of America.
a person who has been granted citizenship in a country. Usually based on either being born in the country, or having parents who are citizens of that country, or immigrating to a country and becoming a "naturalized" citizen.
Common Sense quotes
What book are these quotes from:
"To be always running three or four thousand miles with a tale or a petition, waiting four or five months for an answer, which when obtained requires five or six more [months] to explain it in, will in a few years be looked upon as folly and childishness—There was a time when it was proper, and there is a proper time for it to cease ... England [belongs] to Europe, America to itself.""
That there was no benefit to being a colony of England.
Common Sense was written by Thomas Paine to persuade colonists of what?
Parliament / colonial assemblies
Thomas Paine wrote that "the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution [carrying out] of laws by regal [the king's] authority without consent of Parliament is illegal."
He meant that the king could not make laws for the colonies without _____________________ support (and, even then, when the colonies had representation in Parliament).
This author wrote Common Sense, and is sometimes called "The Father of the Revolution."
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that focused on attacking England/King George III. It was the most widely read pamphlet of the American Revolution. Paine argued that
* the British court was corrupt
* they made laws without consulting Parliament
* the Americans were not given representation
* Europe was really the more important thing, becuase people of all places in Europe immigrated to the American colonies for freedom and liberty.
He also became involved in the French Revolution. He was arrested in 1793 by Robespierre's forces.
the principle that popular majorities are important but limited in power, because they choose people to represent them, and those representatives are the ones that make policy.
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