Terms in this set (32)
Economic and political system that developed in Europe in the Middle Ages
Organizing people into levels like the feudal pyramid
A powerful landowner who supplied the king with knights
An armed warrior Protected the lords fief/manor
A person who farmed in exchange for land
A peasant who can't leave their lords land
A piece of land given to someone lower on the pyramid in exchange for loyalty and service
A large estate w/ a castle, village and farmland, owned by a lord
Leader of the Franks who united all Christian lands of Europe. He encouraged education & the spread of Christianity
Uncivilized invaders who attacked Europe after Charlemagne's death. Vikings were the most dangerous & terrified Europe
Developed to protect Europeans & their property. The feudal pyramid lasted for over 400 years
William the Conqueror
Brought feudalism to England after taking over in 1066
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian Church headed by the pope in Rome- it was the center of life in the Middle Ages. This era was called the "Age of Fiath".
The head of the Catholic Church
Kick someone out of the church
Pope Gregory VII
Began reforming the Church. This angered Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor who said Gregory VII was no longer Pope. Henry was excommunicated and waited 3 days in the snow to beg forgiveness.
Was key to many things in Middle Ages
I: A series of holy wars started by European Christians to take control of the Holy Land in Jerusalem
II: After 3 crusades in which control of Jerusalem went back and forth, each side signed a peace treaty allowing the holy land to be shared,
Art & Architecture
Was made for religious purposes
Most schooling took place in religious institutions
By 1200 CE towns began to grow. Supported by improved farming methods & trade they began to take power away from the lords
Organizations where goods were made
Trade and commerce
The buying & selling of goods. Caused towns to grow more powerful
Because towns were crowded and dirty diseases could be spread easily.
The Decline of Feudalism
3 major reasons: the Magna Carta, bubonic plague, and Hundred Years War
Included commoners in the government
In 1215 nobles forced King John to put his seal on this document. King is not above law, jury trials, cant take money w/o permission, habeus corpus. Over hundreds of years commoners gained these rights.
Killed 24 million people. Carried from China by infected fleas on rats. This loss of population shifted powers from lords to common people.
Hundred Years War
1337-1453 between France & England. Kings & commoners gained more power. Kings use taxes to create large armies, peasants were needed as soldiers in army, paid taxes.
Allowed to participate in government, in higher demand as workers, were soldiers in army, paid taxes. Gave more power & destroyed foundation of feudal hierarchy.