History Ch. 1
Terms in this set (30)
What often denotes the distinction between the study of humans by archaeologists and the study of humans by historians?
The invention of writing
Though ancient Americans lacked writing skills, what did they have?
They used other kinds of symbolic representation
What was the reason for the early, prolonged absence of humans in the Western Hemisphere?
North and South America had become detached from the continent of Pangaea.
How did the Wisconsin glaciation allow hunters to reach the Western Hemisphere?
The Wisconsin glaciation created the wide land bridge of Beringia.
What do the artifacts that have survived from the Paleo-Indian era suggest about the first Americans?
They specialized in hunting big mammals
About 11,000 years ago, why did the Paleo-Indians faced a major crisis?
The large animals they hunted had difficulty adapting to a warming climate
How did Native American cultures adapt to the extinction of big game?
Paleo-Indians began foraging wild plant foods
Describe the Native American cultures when the Europeans arrived in 1492.
It was so varied that it defies easy and simple description
What does the term Archaic describe?
The hunting and gathering cultures that descended from Paleo-Indians
How did archaeologists determine that Folsom hunters and giant bison were contemporaries?
They discovered a Folsom point lodged between the ribs of a giant bison
Describe the Archaic Indians who hunted the bison herds of the Great Plain.
They were nomads who moved constantly with their prey
What environmental factor shaped the cultures of the Archaic peoples of the Eastern Woodland?
How did the diet and culture of Woodland peoples change around 4000 BP?
Woodland cultures adopted limited forms of plant growing
Why did nomadic peoples shun the use of pottery?
Pots were too heavy to carry around
How did agriculture change Archaic cultures?
It encouraged the gradual establishment of permanent settlements
In what area of conservation were Ancient Southwestern Indians experts?
Which tribe is known for multistory cliff dwellings and pueblos?
Why do archaeologists believe that the first ancient Woodland mound builders were organized into chiefdoms?
The complexity of the mounds suggest that one chief commanded labor from others
What do scholars speculate led to the decline of the Hopewell culture?
Farming and new weapons made central authority unnecessary
What do experts believe was the purpose of the woodhenges used by the Cahokians?
Although the two regions had roughly the same population in 1492, how did the population density of North America compare to that of England?
The population density of North America was much less than that of England
Eastern Woodland peoples around the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492 clustered into which three major groups?
Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Muskogean peoples
What was the purpose of The League of Five Nations?
It was a confederation of the Iroquoian tribes for the purposes of war and diplomacy
Describe the Athapascan tribes—mainly Apache and Navajo
they were skillful warriors who preyed on the sedentary pueblo Indians
What was a similarity among the many tribes that inhabited North America at the dawn of European colonization?
Their cultures had developed in relation to their natural environments
Is there evidence that indicates the practice of human sacrifice before 1492 by Native Americans?
How did Native Americans relate to the natural environment?
They changed the environment in a variety of ways that served their own interests
Which group held the most exalted position in Mexican society?
How was wealth redistributed under the Mexica's extensive tribute system?
It was redistributed from the poor to the rich
Spanish conquerors exploited which weakness of the Mexican empire?
The empire's subjects did not see the Mexica as legitimate or fair rulers