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Chemistry Honors Midterm
Terms in this set (100)
Any substance that has a definite composition
What is the purpose of basic research ?
Sake of increasing knowledge
purpose of applied research
Carried out to solve a problem
The study of most carbon containing compounds
The study of non organic substances .. organic fragments bonded to metals
the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
The identification of the components and composition of materials
the study of substances and processes occurring in living things
the use of mathematics and computers to design and predict the properties of new compounds
What is an atom?
An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still remains the properties of an element.
Cutting a pencil
Igniting a match
Grinding coffee beans
Definite shape and volume
A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume.
A state of matter with no definite shape or volume
What is a group in the periodic table?
The vertical columns of the periodic table
What is the period in the periodic table?
The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table
What is a theory?
Broad generalization that explains a body of facts
What is the difference between mass and weight
Mass is determined by comparing the mass of an object with a set of standard masses that are part of the balance. Weight is a measure of the gravitational pull on matter.
how close a measured value is to an accepted value
How close a series of measurements are to one another
How many sig figs are in 7010
How many sig figs are in 1.4 + 2.5
How many sig figs are in 9020
What is the equation for density
Law of Multiple Proportions
If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, the. The ration of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical change
Who put the atomic theory together
What is Dalton's atomic theory?
-Matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, nor destroyed. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form chemical compounds. In chemical reactions, atoms atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.
What has been modified about Dalton's theory?
All matter is composed of atoms. Atoms of any one element differ in properties from atoms of another element remain unchanged. Cannot be divided. Atoms of another element are all identical.
cathode ray, discovered that electrons have a negative charge.
Gold foil experiment discovered the neutron
Very small region located at the center of an atom
What is an isotope?
An atom that has the same number of protons, or atomic number, as other atoms of the same element DO but that have a different number of neutrons and atomic mass
All atoms of the same element have the same proton number. This means they all have the same...
If an atom has 6 protons and a mass number of 13, what element is it
If an atom has 6 protons and a mass number of 13, what is the atomic number
If an atom has 6 protons and a mass number of 13, how many neutrons does it have?
If an atom has 6 protons and a mass number of 13, how many electrons does it have?
If an atom has 12 protons and a mass number of 33, what element is this
If an atom has 12 protons and a mass number of 33, what is the atomic number
If an atom has 12 protons and a mass number of 33, how many neutrons does it have
If an atom has 12 protons and a mass number of 33, how many electrons does it have
What is a wavelength?
The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
What is a photon
A particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
What is the photo electric effect
Refers to the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal. Absorbed photons
What is an electrons ground state
Lowest energy state of an Atom
What is an electrons excited state
An atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
What is the electron cloud
Group of electrons revolving around the nucleus of an atom/cloudlike
What is the Aufbau principle?
An electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it
What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
What is Hund's rule?
Electrons will fill an unoccupied orbital before they pair up.
What did Mendel make
Period table of elements
What was special about Mendeleev's discovery
Predicted undiscovered elements and their properties.
What period is located between elements 90-103
Actinoids. Group seven
What period is located between elements 58-71
Lanthanides. Group six
What group is the most reactive metal
What group is the most reactive nonmetal
What is the most unreactive group
Compare how noble gases and the other elements satisfy the octet rule
In the octet rule atoms react to form compounds that allow them to have eight valance electrons like the noble gases that are already stable
What is ionization energy?
The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element
What is a cation
A positively charged ion
What is an anion
Negatively charged ion
What is a chemical bond
A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valance electrons of different Atoms that binds the atoms together
What are valence electrons?
The electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds.
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally
What is lattice energy?
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
Characteristics of ionic
Positive and negative ions. equal charges out. hard but brittle. metals and non-metals
Metal and metal high electrical and thermal strong absorbers and reflectors of light maluable and ductile
What is the building block of molecular, covalent, compound
What is the most distinctive characteristic of polar molecules
Electrons are unevenly distributed . dipole
Don't crisscross charges
copper (II) phosphate
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
atomic radius trend
increases down a group, decreases across a period
Ionic Radius Trend
increases down, top to bottom
ionization energy trend
energy needed to detach electron from atom, increases from left to right and down to up
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