29 terms

Rocks and minerals

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mineral
(1) solid, (2) inorganic substances (3) occurring in nature (4) having a definite chemical composition and are (5) crystalline in structure (atoms are arranged in a specific repeating pattern)
inorganic
Anything NOT made of plant or animal matter (matter that has never been alive).
organic
Anything that is related to or derived from living organisms.
crystal
a solid substance whose atoms are arranged in a specific repeating pattern
magma
Melted rock beneath the Earth's crust.
evaporation
the process of a liquid changing into a gas, in the case of mineral creation, substances dissolved in the water are left behind forming a mineral
precipitation
The process of atoms coming out of (creating a solid from) a liquid solution, in the case of mineral creation, substances in the water come out of solution usually due to a cooling of the water (creating the mineral).
streak
This property refers to the color of a mineral when rubbed across a hard white surface.
luster
This property refers to refers how shiny (or dull) a mineral appears
cleavage
This property means a mineral will break smoothly and evenly along a specific plane (if a mineral has this it can not have fracture).
color
this refers to the easiest property of a mineral to identify, it is also the least accurate
fracture
This property means a mineral will break in random places (if a mineral has this it can not have cleavage)
density
this property refers to the mass/volume of a substance, it related to how tightly the atoms are packed together
specific gravity
This property refers to the density of a material compared to the density of water where the density of water is 1.
hardness
This property refers to how difficult a mineral is to scratch and uses the Mohs scale.
Mohs scale
This is used to measure hardness of a mineral on a scale of 1-10, a diamond has a hardness of 10, talc has a harness of 1.
ore
This is a material that is mined from the ground to process to a refined mineral product.
igneous rock
Type of rock formed by cooling magma 2 distinct types, extrusive & intrusive.
extrusive igneous rock
Type of rock formed by cooling magma close to the surface leading to small crystals (examples obsidian, pumice, basalt).
intrusive igneous rock
Type of rock formed by cooling magma deep in the Earth where the crystals have time to grow larger due to the slower cooling (granite for example).
Sedimentary rocks
Any type of rock formed by sediments that are compacted and cemented together; the three distinct types are clastic, biological, and chemical.
clastic (sedimentary rock)
Type of rock formed from pieces of igneous and metamorphic rock that have been broken down by weathering and erosion (i.e. sandstone).
biological (sedimentary rock)
Type of rock sometimes called organic rock, this is formed from the remains of once living organisms (coal for example).
chemical (sedimentary rock)
Type of rock formed when water evaporates leaving minerals behind (halite for example).
bedding
Distinct horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks.
lithification
A process when dissolved minerals form crystals between grains of sediments in sedimentary rock.
foliated
Type of metamorphic rock which has visual layers or bands of minerals (gneiss and schist are examples).
nonfoliated
Type of metamorphic rock which has no bands, they have blocky crystal shapes (quartzite and marble are examples).
metamorphic rock
Type of rock formed when high temperature and pressure change the texture, mineral make up, or chemical make up of a rock without melting it.