Global 9 Honors Chapter 2 Vocabulary (First Civilizations: Africa and Asia)

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Silt
Another word for soil; usually deposited by rivers
Cataract
Waterfall along a river
Delta
Triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers; very fertile soils
The Old Kingdom
From 2700-2200 B.C; pharaohs organized a strong, centralized state during this time; also known as the pyramid age
Dynasty
Ruling family
Pharaoh
Egyptian ruler
Vizier
Chief minister of a pharaoh that supervised the businesses of the government
Pyramids
The tombs of many pharaohs during the Old Kingdom; constructed with heavy limestone blocks
Hyksos
Those who controlled the Nile delta during the Middle Kingdom; had horse-drawn chariots which aided in their conquering of Egypt
Queen Hatshepsut
One of the few queens of Egypt during the New Kingdom; she declared herself pharaoh and wore a false beard; expanded trade and built a temple for herself
Ramses II
A military pharaoh; conquered many lands as far North as Syria; set up a peace treaty with Hittites
Hittites
Warlike civilization in Asia Minor; found out how to create iron
Nubia
Kingdom south of Egypt; both traded and fought with Egypt but looked up to Egypt; also known as Kush
Mummification
Preservation of the dead that involved removing organs, drying out the body, and wrapping body in linen
King Tut
18-year-old pharaoh whose tomb was discovered by Howard Carter; helped show much about Egyptian civilization
Akhenaton
Religious rebel pharaoh; tried to make Aton (minor god) the only god to be worshipped
Hieroglyphics
Writing used to keep important records
Demotic
Simpler form of hieroglyphics for everyday use
Papyrus
Paper-like material made from the Papyrus reed; used for writing
Rosetta Stone
A stone inscribed with hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek; helped to translate hieroglyphics
Tale of Sinuhe
Tale that shows the Egyptians' ethnocentrism
The Fertile Crescent
Land located between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean; land around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Ziggurat
Pyramid-like temples that soared to the heavens; contained a shrine to to the gods
Hierarchy
A system of ranking in society
Cuneiform
The earliest known form of writing; created by Sumerians
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Tale that shows the Sumerian's ethnocentrism
Akkad
First empire; created by Sargon in 2300 B.C.
Hammurabi
King of Babylon; inscribed all laws since Sumerian times onto a stone pillar for everyone to see
Hammurabi's Code
The set of laws inscribed on a stone pillar by Hammurabi
Criminal Law
Laws in Hammurabi's Code that deal with murder and theft
Civil Law
Laws in Hammurabi's Code that deal with private rights and matters such as marriage or business contracts
Persia
The largest empire at that time; emperors such as Cyrus the Great and Darius
Cyrus the Great
Persian emperor who destroyed the walls of Babylon; started the expansion of Persia
Darius the Great
Persian emperor who divided lands into provinces to be governed by separate rulers; also set up common weights/measures and coins
Satraps
Governors of provinces in the Persian empire
Barter Economy
Exchanging goods or services for another
Zoroaster
Persian emperor who changed the Persian religion; made it into one of the first monotheistic religions
Zend-Avesta
Sacred book; contained teachings of Zoraster
Colony
A territory settled and ruled by people from a distant land
Phoenicians
Sea traders; known as the "carriers of civilization"
Judaism
One of the first long-lasting monotheistic religions
The Hebrews
People who followed Judaism
Abraham
Founder of Judaism
Israel
Kingdom set up by the Hebrews
Moses
Person who led the Hebrews out of slavery into Canaan (Palestine)
Monotheism
Belief in one (usually all-powerful) god
Covenant
A binding agreement
The Torah
Sacred text of Judaism; contains 5 books
Ten Commandments
10 laws believed to be given by God that set out moral duties
Prophet
Spiritual leader
Ethics
Moral standards of behavior
Diaspora
Scattering of people
Assurbanipal
King of Assyrians that founded one of the first libraries in Nineveh
Nebuchadnezzer
Babylonian king who built the famous Hanging Gardens
Dike
Structure to hold back floodwaters
Sumer
One of the first known civilizations; located between Tigris and Euphrates