Upgrade to remove ads
Dr Sara Gordon's Bone Pathology Flash Cards
Terms in this set (58)
autosomal dominant skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism. Image: U Utah
Also known as "brittle bone disease" this includes at least 4 genetically different diseases that share a biochemical defect in the synthesis of Type I collagen. Common features can include: fragile bones, blue sclera, lax ligaments, hearing loss, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI). Not all features are seen in all types. Image: U Utah
an inherited disorder characterized by an increase in bone density because osteoclasts do not respond to stimuli to remodel bone, resulting in dense bones with increased risk of fracture, as well as anemia due to reduced bone marrow. Image source unknown.
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium. Very common in post-menopausal women. Associated with smoking, genetic predisposition. Prevention includes weight bearing exercise, adequate calcium/Vitamin D intake, and not smoking. Image: Normal bone, left; osteoporotic bone, right; Medscape
defective bone matrix calcification, accompanied by an increased in non-mineralized osteoid. Caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, causing defective mineralization of bone, accompanied by an increased in non-mineralized osteoid. Patients may develop bow legs and rachitic rosary (nodules on ribs). Image source unknown.
Clinical features are "stones (metastatic calcifications), bones (brown tumors and thinning of trabecular), moans (gastric ulcers and constipation), and groans (brain irritation)". Radiographs: generalized loss of lamina dura. Image: Dr James Geist
Central giant cell granuloma of a specific type seen in hyperparathyroidism.
central giant cell granuloma
Tumor-like bone lesion composed of multinucleated giant cells of osteoclast lineage. Can cause bone expansion. Radiolucent. Need to rule out hyperparathyroidism.
an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
TB of the spine with destruction of vertebrae resulting in curvature of the spine (tuberculous osteomyelitis).
Chronic osteomyelitis with subperiosteal new bone formation results from periosteal reaction to chronic inflammatory/infectious stimulation.
mis-nomer and obsolete name for proliferative periostitis. We do not use this term any more.
death of bone, noted microscopically by the loss of osteocytes in bone lacunae.
a piece of dead bone separated from the sound bone in necrosis
dense bone island
localized, well-defined, radiopaque mass in the jaw with a round, elliptical or irregular shape and a variable size. Asymptomatic accidental finding on X-ray. Formed of dense bone. Requires no treatment.
synonym for "dense bone island"
solitary bone cyst
a benign cavity in bone that is either empty or contains fluid. Despite its name, epithelium is not found.
focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect
Asymptomatic radiolucency of bone; biopsy shows it is full of bone marrow. More common in middle-aged women.
Beginning in early childhood, both the mandible and the maxilla become enlarged as bone is replaced with painless, cyst-like growths that give the cheeks a swollen, rounded appearance and often interfere with normal tooth development. The abnormal growths are gradually replaced with normal bone in early adulthood. As a result, many affected adults have a normal facial appearance. Inherited mutation in the SH3BP2 gene in most cases. Image: Dr Richard Wesley
traumatic bone cyst
Synonym for Solitary bone cyst. Image: USC
synonyms for "traumatic bone cyst"
Solitary bone cyst; Hemorrhagic bone cyst; Idiopathic bone cyst
benign fibro-osseous lesions (BFOL)
heterogenous group of bone lesions that share similar microscopic features: replacement of bone by a fibrous stroma mixed with bony spicules of various shapes and sizes. Image source unknown.
Paget disease of bone
Bone remodelling unrelated to functional requirements. M > F -- late middle age to old age. Slow chronic expansion of bone -- focal or disseminated. Classic presentation: patient needs to buy hats of increasingly larger size. Radiologic picture changes with time -- osteolytic phase (radiolucent), osteoblastic phase (cotton-wool appearance), and later radiopaque. Blood tests: elevated alkaline phosphatase (often double normal values), and elevated hydroxyproline in the urine. Microscopic: BFOL includes "mosaic' bone with deeply basophilic (blue-staining) reversal lines. Osteosarcoma is the most dreaded complication; it is aggressive and may develop in ~1% . Image: USC
Benign tumor-like condition which may involve one or more bones. Disease of the young. Can affect one or several bones. Radiographic: radiolucency with well-circumscribed border and trabecular network; or increased trabeculation makes it look more mottled; or typical ground-glass appearance, fairly opaque with many delicate trabeculae, not well circumscribed. Micro: BFOL with so-called "Chinese characters" of bone. The disease tends to slow down at puberty. Malignant transformation to osteosarcoma very rare, but more likely if the lesions are treated with radiation. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia can be associated with McCune Albright Syndrome (multiple bone involvement + cafe au lait spots + precocious puberty). Image: USC
Florid (cemento-) osseous dysplasia
Normal tooth-bearing bone is replaced with a mix of connective tissue and abnormal bone, in multiple quadrants of the jaws. It tends to affect middle aged women, particularly women of African American and Asian descent. Early stage radiolucent; later cotton-wool calcifications are seen, particularly centrally. *
Lesions are strictly confined to tooth bearing regions of the jaws (versus Paget Disease)
*. Microscopic: BFOL. Image: University of Detroit Mercy
periapical osseous dysplasia
(Cemento-) osseous dysplasia in a specific location: it ONLY occurs around the apices of one or more mandibular anterior teeth. Teeth are vital. This is important to note, because in early phase it appears as periapical radiolucencies, and endodontic therapy is NOT appropriate. Image: Dr Jim Geist
focal osseous dysplasia
(Cemento-) osseous dysplasia in one location EXCEPT NOT around the apices of one or more mandibular anterior teeth. This is important to note, because in early phase it appears as periapical radiolucencies, and endodontic therapy is NOT appropriate. Teeth are vital.
central (cemento-) ossifying fibroma
Bone tumor that causes expansion of bone. Initially radiolucent; later may have radiopacities. Encapsulated mass with BFOL features. More common in mid-30s and in posterior mandible. F>M.
Mass of cementum-like tissue attached to the root of a tooth, usually a mandibular molar. Image: Journal of the Canadian Dental Association
a slow growing benign tumor of consisting of bone tissue. Painful.
a painless slow growing benign tumor of consisting of bone tissue. Multiple osteomas are seen in Gardner Syndrome, with multiple impacted and supernumerary teeth and high risk of bowel cancer. Image: Neville's "Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology"
benign tumor of bone and fibrous tissue. M>F 2:1. Age 10-30 - 90% by age 30. Pain not relieved by aspirin, hurts more at night. Expansion of cortex, tooth mobility, rapid onset.
The most common malignant bone tumor, most common in children and young adults where it tends to affect the femur (knee is the most common location). Formation of osteoid by malignant mesenchymal cells.Variable amounts of bone may be present; M>F 2:1. Teens to early 20's. Pain and swelling, paraesthesia. Loss of heterozygosity, structural rearrangements, or point mutations of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB) are often seen, so patients with germline retinoblastoma mutation are at increased risk. Increased risk is also seen in patients with Paget Disease of Bone, and Fibrous Dysplasia (especially if treated with radiation). Radiograph (shown): Starburst of dense tissues exending into soft tissues.
Malignancy of mesenchymal cells that produce a matrix of cartilage. M>F 2:1. Age 50-70 for primary, 10 years sooner for secondary. 20% of primary bone malignancies. Radiograph: Starburst of dense tissues exending into soft tissues. Image: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;95:7-11
primitive malignant neoplasm of bone and soft tissues that occurs in children and teenagers. It is the second most common bone malignancy in kids (second to osteosarcoma). Radiograph: Starburst of dense tissues exending into soft tissues. Histology: primitive neuroectodermal tumor with small blue cells. Image: Webpath
plasma cell malignancy that causes multiple painful punched-out radiolucencies of bone. Monoclonal gammopathy: malignant cells produce identical IgG which can be detected on serum electrophoresis. Light chains may be secreted in urine as Bence Jones Proteins. Image source unknown.
Degenerative "wear and tear" joint disease featuring degeneration of the articular cartilage; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age.Surface erosions in the fibrocartilage with lateral splitting and vertical splaying until the hyaline cartilage or subchondral bone is exposed. Subchondral bone is thickened and polished (eburnation). Fragments of cartilage and bone can be dislodged to float free in the joint space (joint mice). Dystrophic ossification may occur forming spurs of bone on the periphery of the cartilage (osteophytes). Synovial fluid may leak through the cartilage and bone to form cysts within the bone. The articular surface may demonstrate lipping and other contour changes radiographically. Image: Rubins Essentials of Pathology.
Autoimmune joint disease causing joint degeneration. Often first appears as symmetrical arthritis of small joints. Patients can also develop rheumatoid nodules on the skin: subcutaneous nodules composed of a central area of fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by macrophages and lymphocytes. Image: Rubins Essentials of Pathology.
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
Malignant neoplasm arising from mesenchyme near joint cavities.
Small jaw. Image: Journal of the Canadian Dental Assocation
Heritable skeletal disease with hypoplastic or missing clavicles (patient can often touch shoulders together), multiple impacted and supernumerary teeth. May also have delayed closure of fontanelles. Autosomal dominant. Image: Bristol Biomedical Image Archives
depression on medial surface of mandible created by ectopic salivary gland tissue from the submandibular gland. Appears as a non-expansile radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Requires no treatment. Image: Downtown Oral Surgery
static bone cyst
Synonym for Staphne defect
nasopalatine duct cyst
True cyst of the nasopalatine duct. May appear as a heart shaped radiolucency between maxillary centrals. Image: Bristol Biomedical Image Archives
median palatal cyst
True cyst of the mid-palate.
Obsolete term for a cyst in the maxillary cuspid region; this term is NOT regarded as a diagnosis in contemporary dentistry.
marble bone disease
Synonym for osteopetrosis
Synonym for osteopetrosis
Synonym for Paget disease of bone
aneurysmal bone cyst
traumatic bone cyst filled with large amounts of blood
bone lesions due to secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal disease - can cause multiple radiolucencies. Image: Springer.com
McCune Albright Syndrome
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (multiple bone involvement) + cafe au lait spots + precocious puberty.
chronic Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Also called Histiocytosis X and Eosinophilic Granuloma, this is a proliferation of cells similar to bone marrow-derived Langerhans cells, against a backdrop of hematopoietic cells, especially eosinophils. It can cause radiolucencies and floating teeth, can affect multiple sites, but is a slow-growing lesion.
(Usually asymptomatic) area of increased bone density at the apex of a tooth, caused by inflammation but not necessarily acute pulpitis or pulpal necrosis. Image: Virginia Commonwealth University
a benign tumor of cartilage cells.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Dr Sara Gordon's Neural Pathology Flash Cards
Dr Sara Gordon's Odontogenic Cysts & Tumors Flash…
Dr Sara Gordon's Head & Neck Path Flash…
Dr Sara Gordon's Hard Tissue Flash Cards
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Pathology Skeletal System Chapter 4
Bone 3: Tumors
radiographic pathology chapter 2
Principles Skeletal Pathology_clang848
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
ATGD 2016 Practice Set
Dr Sara Gordon's Skin Pathology Definitions
Dr Sara Gordon's Neoplasia
Dr Sara Gordon's Neoplasia Nomenclature