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195 terms

Biology Semester II Exam Review

STUDY
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Cellulose
Component of the cell wall of plants
Leaf
Primary part of the plant used for photosynthesis
Monocot
Parallel leaf venation
Flower
Reproductive part of an anthophyte
Moist environment
Necessary to transport sperm and for diffusion of water and nutrients in nonvascular plants
Sclerenchyma
Type of plant cell with thick, rigid cell walls
Ethylene gas
Hormone which helps ripen fruits
Complete Flower
Contains both stamen (male) and pistil (female) parts
Wind
Seed dispersal mechanism using hairy plumes
Animal fur
Seed dispersal mechanism using hooks and barbs
Netted veins
Dicot leaf has this venation
Phloem
Transports sugars down a plant from the leaves
Phototropism
Plant's response to light
Archegonia
Female reproductive part of a nonvascular plant
Annuals
Anthophyte that lives for only one year
Conifers
Plant type that has naked seeds
Anthophytes
Flowering plants with enclosed seeds and fruit
Bilateral Symmetry
Symmetry of worms, butterflies and man
One
Number of body segments of a tick
Two
Number of body segments of a spider
Three
Number of body segments of insects
Complete Metamorphosis
Egg, larve, pupa, adult
Incomplete Metamorphosis
Egg, nymph adult
Six
Number of walking legs of insects
Eight
Number of walking legs of spider
Trichina Worms
Undercooked pork may contain
Nematocysts
stinging cells that discharge when tentacles are touched
Jointed appendages
Most distinguishing characteristics of arthropods
Stinging tentacles
Cnidarians capture food with
Molt
Process of shedding exoskeleton while new one grows beneath old one
Gills
Aquatic arthropods breathe using these
Filter feed
Sponges and other sessile organisms feed by what means?
Coral
Group of Cnidarians that provide food, shelter for other organisms
Antennae
Part of insect that senses vibrations, food, and pheremones
Planarian
Flat worm with a pharynx, (muscluar tube for feeding)
Radial
Symmetry of adult sea stars and sea urchins
fish
Vertebrate with a 2- chambered heart
test chemicals in air
Reason snakes flick out their tongues
Feathers
Distinguishing characteristic of birds
Teeth
Mammals are classified by their
Tympanic Membrane
Amphibians organ to sense vibrations from water or air
Placental
Mammal type that fully develops in uterus with umbilical cord
Lamprey and Hagfish
Two fish that lack jaws
Osteichthyes
Class of bony fish
Amphibians
Vertebrate characterized with thin, moist skin
Jacobson's organ
Sense organ on snake's roof of mouth which detects airborne chemicals
Lateral line
Fish sense organ which detects vibrations and movement in the water
Platypus and Echidna
Two examples of egg laying Monotremes
Australia
Most marsupials are located here
Smooth
Muscle type of internal organs
Conserves body heat
Main advantage of hair
smell, sound, touch
Three ways animals communicate
Imprinting
Attachment behavior at a critical time in life
Trial and Error
Behavior where an animal receives a reward
Involuntary
Muscle contractions that are not controlled
Territorial behavior
Type of behavior in which an animal protects his home area
Pheromone
Chemical animal communicates with
circadian rhythm
24-hour cycle of an animal
Pavlov
Biologist who demonstrated conditioning in dogs
Aggression
Animal behavior where they are showing agitation toward another
Cardiac
Heart muscle type
Lichen
Mutual relationship between a fungus and algae
Mycorrhizae
Mutual relationship between fungus and plant roots
Shape
Bacteria is identified by their
Conjugation
Sexual reproduction in bacteria exchanging genetic information
Bacteriophage
Virus that infects bacterial cells
Nonliving
Viruses are classified as
Penicillin
Causes holes in cell walls of bacteria killing them
Dinoflagellates
plant-like protist that causes red tide
sexual spores
Fungus is classified by their
Decomposers
Fungi and bacteria are considered this since they can transform complex molecules into simpler raw materials
Flagellate
Protozoan with a whip-like tail
Cilia
Short hair-like structures on a paramecium
Diatoms
Plant-like Protist made of various shells of silica
Protista
Kingdom of Eukaryotes, multi or unicellular includes algae and protozoans
Protozoan
Animal-like protist
Algae
Plant-like protist
Asexual
Reproduction that produces identical daughter cells as the parent cell. (binary fission and budding)
Aristotle
First to propose a taxonomic system
Scientific Name
Composed of genus and species
Binomial Nomenclature
A two word naming system
Latin
Language used for scientific names
Taxonomy
Science of grouping and naming organisms
Classification
Placing of information or objects into groups based on similarities
Dichotomous Key
step by step approach to identify an organism using a series of paired descriptions
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
7 Levels of Classification in order
Animalia
Kingdom of insects, worms, sponges and elephants
Genus
First word of the scientific name
Plantae
Kingdom of mosses, conifers and flowering plants
Fungi
Kingdom of mushrooms, puffballs and yeast
Archeabacteria and Eubacteria
Two kingdoms of prokaryotic cells
Protista
Kingdom of plant-like (algae) and animal-like (protozoans) organisms
Animalia
Kingdom of all eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular organisms
Plantae
Kingdom of all autotrophic and multicellular organisms
Hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor
Evolutionary belief of gases in the primitive atmosphere
small pools of amino acids
Starting in the 1950's Evolutionists suggested life came from
Spontaneous Generation
Widely accepted view of life coming from nothing before Biogenesis was accepted
Cenozoic
Evolutionary Era when Human were thought to "evolve"
4.6 Billion Years
Evolutionary time line when earth was supposedly formed
Cyanobacteria
Evolutionary viewpoint on first group of organisms to evolve
Urey and Miller
Scientists who tried to conduct an experiment to prove life came from earth's ancient conditions
Darwin
Founder of modern Evolution theory
Prosimians
Group of lemurs and tarsiers
Homologous Structures
Evolutionary idea that the wing of a bat is common to the arm of a human
Vestigial Organs
The name of the Evolutionary idea that some organs no longer function
Camouflage
The ability an animal has to blend in with it's surroundings
Mimicry
Ability of an animal to look like another more harmful animal
Natural Selection
Evolution idea that nature selects which characteristics will continue in an animal population
Range of Tolerance
Animals ability to withstand environmental fluctuations
Autotrophs
Organisms that can convert light into chemical energy
Ovary
Organ which produces the female egg
Testis
Organ which produces the male sperm
Uterus
Female organ where a fetus develops
Bacteria
Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia are all caused by
Tail, head, mitochondria
Three parts of the male sperm
Alveoli
Small sacs of the lungs where gas exchange takes place
Lymphatic
Body system that helps recover body fluids and returns it to the blood
Integumentary
Body system the protects and regulates the body's temperature
Invasive species
Species not native to a given area
Cones
Part of the retina that allows you to see color
Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Kidneys
Organs that collect waste from cells and maintains the bodies homeostasis
Sensory neurons
Carries impulses from environment to brain/spinal cord
Motor neurons
Carries impulses from brain/spinal cord to muscles
Puberty
Menstrual cycle begins during the stage
Viruses
Causes genital herpes, warts and AIDS
HIV
Virus that weakens the immune system
Endocrine System
System which produces hormones for the body
Depressant
Type of drug which slows down and reduces nervous system activity
Purple
Color of Gram positive stained bacteria
Intelligent Design
Theory which suggests all life is complex and best explained by an intelligent cause
Melanin
Pigment that causes various shade of skin color
Antediluvian
Term used to refer to "before the flood"
Yom
Hebrew word used for "day" typically written for describing a 24 hour period
Sin
Biblical understanding of the cause of death, disease, blood shed
2 Timothy 3: 16-17
"All scripture is God breathed, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness..."
Romans 5:12
"by one man sin entered the world, and death by sin..."
Europe
Shem's descendants migrated to this area
Africa
Ham's descendants migrated to this area
Asia
Japheth's descendants migrated to this area
Tower of Babel dispersion
What Biblical event caused smaller population sizes and disrupted genetic equilibrium
.2%
The percent difference of any two people in the world
over hunting and harsh environmental conditions
Possible reasons for dinosaurs being extent
Job
Book of the Bible that contains descriptions of animals similar to dinosaurs
Micro-evolution
Changes in animals that are limited to the species gene pool
Macro-evolution
Changes in animals that require beneficial mutations involving addition of new information into the DNA
Presuppositions
Initial starting belief of a person that determines their viewpoint concerning the origin of life
Habitat Loss
Greatest threat to animal diversity
Root
Part of plant that functions in absorption of water and minerals and anchors the plant
Round
Hook, Pin, and Heart worms are all considered ___________ worms.
Segmented
Leech and earthworms are ___________ worms.
Alternation of Generations
Life cycle of organisms that switch from asexual to sexual reproduction
Archaebacteria
Kingdom of bacteria that live in extreme environments
Habitat fragmentation
Building a road in the middle of an ecosystem is an example of...
Niche
A role an organism has in an environment...like being a predator
Energy
_________ decreases as you move from one trophic level to the next
Habitat
Where an organism lives...
Mutualism
A symbiotic relationship when both organisms benefit from the relationship...
Older fossils are at the bottom
An evolutionary assumption using the fossil record to prove how old a fossil is.
sperm
Pollen of a plant contains ______________.
photosynthesis
Leaves often have a large surface area which enhances the plants ability to ________________.
veins
Vascular tissue of a plant make up the plant's ______.
guard cells
The stomata of the plant leaf is regulated by _______.
parenchyma
The most abundant plant cell which has thin cell walls and large vacuoles...
antheridia
Moss plants produce sperm in the ____________.
prothallus
In the fern life cycle, the spores germinates into a heart shaped gametophyte called a ____________.
ectoderm
During the embryological develop, the skin and nervous tissue is formed from the __________ layer.
Crustacea
Crabs, lobsters and pill bugs belong to the Class _______.
Echinodermata
Sand dollars, sea stars and sea cucumbers belong to the Class ____________.
suction in the tube feet
Sea stars move and capture prey by the aide of the ____________________.
aging
Sagging, wrinkles and dryness are all effects of __________.
water
The most abundant substance in the body.
GI Tract
The mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines make up the ________.
accessory organs
The liver, pancreas and gall bladder are ________ to the digestive system.
absorption
The primary function of the small intestine is ____________.
speeds up
A stimulant is a drug that __________ the activities of the nervous system.
urinary bladder
The organ which stores urine before being expelled form the body is the _______________.
nephron
The filtering unit of the kidney...
neurons
Cells of the nervous system are called ___________.
fungus
A decomposer that is heterotrophic and eukaryotic.
endospores
Bacteria can survive harsh conditions by forming
round, rod and spiral
The three primary shapes of bacteria are __________.
lytic cycle
A viral cycle which uses the host cell's parts to reproduce more particles and exits the cell killing it.
mutations
Neo-Darwinists believe evolution occurred through beneficial ______________.
ecosystem
Ecologists who study a group of different animals and how they relate to each other and to the abiotic parts of the environment are interested in studying the _________________.
26
__________ other religious books that people of faith believe are divinely inspired but none of them except the Bible have specific fulfilled prophecies.
27%
The % of the Bible which contains what was predictive prophecy at the time that it was written.
25,000
Over _______archeological studies have confirmed the Bible's truthfulne.ss
39
There are more than ________ sources outside of the Bible, written within 150 years of Jesus' life that attest to more than 100 facts regarding Jesus' life, death, resurrection and teachings.
scientific
_________ evidence was written about way before, microscopes, telescopes and satellites were invented providing students of the Scriptures to have knowledge of the universe and creation.
25,000
There are over ______________ handwritten copies of just the New Testament verifying we have the same Bible as the early church used 2000 years ago.
epidermis
The layer of plant tissue that functions like our skin
tendon
Connects muscle to bone
Eubacteria
Kingdom containg bacteria in non-extreme environments
Cerebrum
The largest part of the brain is the