84 terms

APWH Unit 1

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Neolithic
"New Stone Age"
Agricultural society-surplus food-development of civilizations
Some sort of religion, science, paintings & carvings
Paleolithic
"Old Stone Age"
hunters & gatherers
Lucy
Australopithicus found that was well kept.
Short, walked on 2 feet, opposable thumbs
Australopithicus
hominid-human like creature
short, hairy, not very smart
Agricultural Revolutions
surplus food
started cultivating crops & domesticating animals
happened at different times in different areas
Different methods of growing crops ex) slash & burn
Catal Hayuk
one of first towns
center of production & trade
specialized labor due to surplus food
Tigris
river in modern day Iraq
borders Mesopotamia
Euphrates
river surrounding Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
first civilization
"the land between rivers"
irrigation
social classes
Sargon
administrator who created first empire in Mesopotamia
traveled with large army conquering & controlling cities
Hammurabi's Code
First written book of laws by Hammurabi, king of Babylonian empire
moral standards
harsh punishment
Relied on lex talionis
Lex Talionis
punishment based on what you did
"I do to you what you do to me"
Cuneiform
first form of writing
made of pictographs
wedge shaped symbols on clay with reed tablets
Nile
longest river
travels south to north
flood cycle
Nubia
Agricultural society by Nile river valley
Used flood cycle to create food
By Nile's cataracts
Pharaoh
Egyptian king
believed they were gods in human form
Pyramids
large tombs for pharaohs
took many laborers to make
Menes
conquerer in Egypt who built centralized state ruled by Pharaoh
brought organized rule to Egypt
created Memphis-capital of Egypt
Hieroglyphics
writing "holy inscriptions"
pictographs mostly on temples, monuments, and buildings
Mummy
death wasn't the end, transition to new dimension
only for ruling elites, and eventually anyone
Diaspora
spreading of Jews throughout world
Ziggurat
stepped pyramids that housed temples and altars in Mesopotamia
Moses
believed there was only one god named Yahweh
led Jews out of slavery in Egypt
spread 10 commandments
Palestine
where jewish state was created
Torah
Jewish bible with holy scriptures in it
old testament
"doctrine, teaching"
Jerusalem
the jewish city
capital of Judah
Soloman's temple was here
Destroyed by New Babylonian empire and jews were forced into exile, but maintained religious identity
Monotheism
believing in one god
City-state
independent country in mesopotamia
has palaces, temples, and defense walls
ruled by government authorities
Hatshesut
queen of Egypt
hid that they had a woman ruler
Khufu
largest pyramid
took a lot of people a long time
Hyksos
Semetic people
had horses, chariots, and bronze weapons
Took over Egypt, but Egypt rebels by learning their ways with chariots
Yahweh
powerful god
creator of the world
Moses believes in him
Phoenicia
Trade and industrial based society, not agricultural
Had the best ships
Known for their red and purple textiles
Akhenaten
pharaoh in Egypt
forced people to believe in Aten
made new capital city called Akhetaten
Israel
Israelites large kingdom in North
conquered by Assyrian empire who deported the citizens
Assyrian Empire
Conquered Israel
gets conquered by The New Babylonian Empire
Surplus food
having enough food to supply a civilization
gives people free time to create other things
Indo-European
people who migrated to India and Europe
first to domesticate and use horses (food, warfare, trade)
herders, cultivated small quantities
Herodotus
Greek historian
father of history
explained mummification
said Egypt was "the gift of the Nile"
Aryans
pastoral people
Indo-Europeans who invade India
prized horses
Harappa
powerful, developed city in Indus River Valley
had lots of buildings
streets that went N-S E-W
society based on agriculture and trade
traded pottery, tools, and decorations
Mohenjo-Daro
large, powerful city in Indus River Valley
had a pool
Indus
river in NE India
first Harappan civilizations
first domesticated chickens
floods less predictable than Nile
gets water from rain & snow on mountains
Vedas
collections of hymns, songs, rituals, and prayers honoring Aryan gods
represent priestly perspective on affairs
told about Aryan conflicts
Dravidian
first people of Indus River Valley
clashed with Aryans a lot
Caste
system of social order in India
room for change, but not much.
Varna
major social class
refers to skin color
Dravidians-lowest
Aryans-top caste
Jati
subcaste
Bromins-priestly
Kastrias-Warriors
Phaecias-merchants, blacksmiths
Shudra-farmers
no caste-untouchables did work no one else wanted to do
Sati
practice in India when wives threw themselves on their dead husbands while being cremated out of respect and honor
Reincarnation
dying and coming back to life in another form. practiced by Indians
Upanishads
gathering of disciples before a sage to talk about religious issues
Brahman
universal soul
foundation for all things that exist
Karma
if you're good you'll reincarnate to higher caste, if you're bad you reincarnate to something worsee
Moksha
"perfection" escape from cycle of reincarnation
deep, dreamless sleep
practiced asceticism (isolation from physical world) to be with Brahman
Yellow River
River named after its soil that feeds into it and makes it yellow
Unpredictable floods
"China's sorrow"
Yangzi
"long river"
Agricultural valley by Yangzi river
cultivated rice
no devastating floods
Xia
first Chinese dynasty
organized public life in China on a large scale
first to start hereditary rule
Yu
sage king who founded Xia dynasty
organized public projects, political institutions, and authorities
Shang
Chinese dynasty that slowly over took Xia
kept written records
Zhou
dynasty that took over Shang by organizing allies better
largest dynasty
warring states period
worshipped ancestors
Mandate of Heaven
belief that kings were chosen by gods in China
Ancestor Worship
practiced by Chinese. They believed their ancestors would support and protect them
sacrificed to their ancestors
oldest male in family could talk to ancestors
Oracle bones
Bones written on by fortune tellers that asked questions
Most had everyday concerns
Nomads
people who traveled from place to place
Mesoamerica
central america. found by people following animals on land bridge
Relied on plants more than animals
Olmec
"rubber people"
first civilization in Mesoamerica
coast of Gulf of Mexico
influenced Mesoamerica a lot
known for huge sculptures of heads
Maya
had ceremonial centers
Tikal was first actual city
Didn't kill, but captured enemies
Chavin
in andes mountains
llamas and potatoes
large temples & elaborate works of art
gets name from city it was most popular in
Andean
on coast, each valley provided different resource
highlands-potatoes, llama meat, alpaca wool
central-maize, bean, and squash
coast-sweet potatoes, fish, and cottom
Australia
hunters & gatherers
migrated to find food
Oceania
seafaring people who traveled on canoes and settled in different places on islands in the Pacific
Austronesian
people who explored and settled on Pacific coast
shared language
Polynesia
area by Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand
sub-saharan
land below Sahara desert
scribes
people who wrote stuff down
trained for years
high status
obsidian
volcanic rock used to make sharp-edged things
Raja
name for king in India
Bantu
the language of the people in Sub-Saharan Africa
Kush
city-state in Nubia
yoga
meditation for Hindus in India
Lapita
Earliest Austronesian migrants
got around on boats made of two canoes
Sumer
southern part of Mesopotamia
Tribute
what inferior people paid to superior people
taxes
Abraham
father of Jewish state