17 terms

Chapter 4 Cell Reproduction Vocabulary

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mitosis
the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei with identical chromosomes
chromosome
a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material
asexual reproduction
type of reproduction when a new organism (sometimes more than one) is produced that has hereditary material identical to the parent organism
budding
a type of asexual reproduction made possible by cell division where one organism grows from the body of the parent organism
regeneration
a type of asexual reproduction that uses cell division to regrow damaged or lost body parts
sexual reproduction
type of reproduction when two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, come together to produce a new organism
sperm
cells formed in the male reproductive organs
egg
cells formed in the female reproductive organs which contain stored food along with the other cell parts
fertilization
the joining of an egg and a sperm
zygote
the cell that forms when an egg and a sperm join
diploid
describes cells that have pairs of chromosomes
haploid
describes cells that do not have pairs of chromosomes
meiosis
nuclear division that forms sex cells (haploid)
DNA
the code that contains all the information that an organism needs to grow and function
gene
a section of DNA (on a chromosome) where instructions for making specific proteins are found
RNA
a type of nucleic acid that carries the codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes
mutation
any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell
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