HONORS WORLD HISTORY_Medieval Europe, Hierarchy, Rulers and Roles, Crusades, and Medieval Arts and Literature
Terms in this set (141)
Europe's economic changes during the Medieval Era were due to...
the exposure to new peoples during the Crusades, the exposure to new goods overseas, and the establishment of guilds back home
the old-fashioned way to refer to the centuries between the decline of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance. This time period is considered dark because it was less culturally vibrant than the subsequent eras.
the currently accepted way to refer to the era between the decline of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance
decrease in the urban population as a result of economic or social changes
the system under which a peasant was made entirely dependent on the land and his lord
innovation of the Middle Ages in which one-third of the farmland was left fallow, or un-planted, each season. The remaining fields were split between early and late crops, resulting in two harvests. This helped prevent famine by ensuring a back-up crop in case one harvest failed.
a common language used for international commerce
wealthy noblemen who controlled land exchanged protection for the military service or labor of their serfs or servants.
religious services sold by the Catholic church for money.
tracts of land that powerful people leased to less powerful people. A fief included a manor or castle at the center, smaller homes for the laborers who lived there, land for farming, woods, and streams for fishing. Fiefs were similar to plantations found in the American South during the period of slavery.
Social Class in the Feudal system
King: inherited ultimate control over the lands of his kingdom
Nobility: lords or barons, who were granted large areas of land to control as they wished; expected to pay taxes to the king and to provide knights who would fight in the king's military
Vassals: Those who leased land from a lord and pledged fealty; obliged to protect the lord's lands. Many vassals were knights, members of a trained warrior class, who also served in the king's army in international wars. In return for his allegiance, a vassal was granted a fief.
Peasants/Serfs: Peasants and serfs were the toiling classes. They worked the land and performed the labor required to keep the system functioning. Poor and uneducated, lived and worked on the land of nobles. Economic backbone of the society. Couldn't leave land without permission.
a system under which land and titles were inherited by the eldest son (or other male heir)
money or property offered to the potential husband of a daughter
a method of conferring knighthood in which the lord taps the new knight on the shoulder with the flat of a sword
a code of conduct for knights, which dictated honorable behavior
Process of becoming a knight
boy is sent to a castle to become a page, a student and servant of an experienced knight. His training went on for many years, and it wasn't just in how to fight; it was also in such things as horsemanship, reading, singing, chess, and the art of falconry.
ADOLESCENCE: become a squire, bearing weapons for a professional knight. When the young man had proven himself and had amassed the funds necessary to purchase his equipment, he would be knighted.
What was at the center of society in the Medieval Ages?
Social class of Church
a small territorial unit typically having its own church and a priest or pastor
Who was responsible for the founding of Europe's greatest Universities?
the Catholic Church
the practice of giving 10% of annual income to the Church
How did the idea of feudalism emerge as an historical construct?
Historians in the 16th and 17th centuries were the first people to describe medieval land use as feudalism. These historians were influenced by contemporary scientific efforts to organize the natural world. Historians focused on common trends in the political arrangements of the Middle Ages. They developed the concept of feudalism and applied it to the Middle Ages after the fact.
Types of Serfs
TENANTS: Paid for the use of the lord's land, but otherwise were not bound to the land or obligated to any other duties.
VILLEINS: orked land on behalf of their lord; very little freedom. Legal status was that of a slave. Did not receive wages. Had to ask his lord for permission to marry or to travel, and was subject to the lord's laws and taxes. Could not be bought and sold between lords. Was legally little more than property. If the entire estate was sold, the villeins went with it.
SHARECROPPERS: serfs who owed most of their produce to the lord as a fee for use of the land
What options did a second son have as a career in medieval society?
• Serve as a squire
• Join the Church as a priest or monk
In what way were women tied to the fate of their men?
money involved in a woman's dowry came with her into a marriage, it was not her own money and she herself could not inherit from her parents. Had to marry to secure their position.
How did the importance of knights change over time?
Knights followed a code of conduct called chivalry--dictated honorable behavior for a warrior. Over the course of the Middle Ages, this code also came to be associated with Christianity. The ideal knightly behavior included protecting and respecting the Church, respecting one's lord, and helping the weak and the poor
By the end of the Middle Ages, the bulk of the military consisted of mercenary soldiers, or warriors for hire, with the minority of knights now an officer class
How did the Church in the medieval period gain wealth?
Lords and ladies supported the church with income from manor lands, and often paid the wages of priests, as well
Another source of wealth was the Crusades. These holy wars brought gold, treasure, and innovations into Western Christendom.
Wealthy nobles also paid to have beautiful funeral monuments made and to have prayers and masses said for the souls of their family members after death
The Early Middle Ages lasted from...
The Late Middle Ages lasted from...
The High Middle Ages lasted from...
What were the three kinds of enemies of the Roman Empire?
1. thoughtful, organized, and powerful Persians who kept the Romans occupied in the East. Rome's resources were being deliberately drawn to the East under constant warfare.
2. Barbarian Germans and Celtics from the Northwest of Europe. They had settled in Roman Empire, moved out, and now attacked it.
3. Nomads--great warrior confederacies that sprang up and attacked people of central Asia and China, Persia, and sometimes Rome
Who were the Franks?
a group of Germanic peoples that first arose along the Rhine River in the 3rd century and grew to occupy Gaul (France)
Who were the Angles and Saxons?
a group of Germanic peoples that emerged from the north central Europe circa 2nd century who conquered and settled in the British Isles in the 5th century
referring to a line Frankish kings beginning with Clovis I in 481 CE though having its roots in earlier tribal leaders
a Merovingian ruler who united most of the Franks under his rule in the late 5th century His attempt at building his own united empire fell apart. When he died, his four sons each took a piece of the kingdom.
military leader among the Franks who served and advised the Merovingian rulers and assumed most duties of leadership between 737 and 743 CE
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
Charles Mantel's grandson; powerful king who united the Franks and conquered neighboring lands, forming the basis of what would become the Holy Roman Empire and earning the title Emperor of the West from Pope Leo III in 801; he implemented feudalism on a large scale
line of Frankish kings descending from Charles Martel that officially began with Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, in 747
gift of land made by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty, service, and taxes
Extent of the Frankish empire?
Gaul, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, Germany, Italy
What was the significance of the crowning of Charlemagne in 800 CE by Pope Leo III?
the Pope gained a defender of Italy. Also, by performing the action of crowning the emperor, he put the Church in the superior position. Having given this title to the king, the Church reserved the right to take it back. The Church had made Charlemagne the Emperor, and yet at the same time undermined his power by confirming itself—the Church—as the true decision-maker.
What cultural advances did Charlemagne make?
built schools, sponsoedr artistic and literary works, issued money, encouraged trade, and spread his faith
Who were the Vikings? What areas did they conquer?
group of Norse warriors, explorers, and merchants who emerged from Scandinavia in the late 8th century.
Raided eastern and eestern Europe. They even ventured across the Atlantic Ocean, reaching first Iceland, then Greenland, and finally North America.
Where did the Vikings emerge from? What are their roots?
descended from Germanic people in the North and are rooted in what is now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.
Where did the Vikings settle?
Rus (Russia) and British Isles; Lindisfame, the Holy Island, off the English coast
What are the Vikings' influences in Europe?
their mythology, craftsmanship, literature, and seafaring skill became a part of the European inheritance
What was the "Divine Right of Kings"?
kings derive their authority from God, not their subjects. Just as God has granted spiritual power to the Pope, he has granted secular/political power to Europe's kings
Pope Gregory I
led Church from 6th to 7th century.
emphasized devotion and missionary work.
His reforms solidified division between Catholic and East Orthodox Church.
Worked to make peace with and among Germanic kingdoms
Alfred the Great
*Ruled over Anglo-Saxon England during the 9th century.
Drove back onslaught of Viking Danes & reorganized government and military.
Codified English laws
*unified feudal kingdoms of Germany under his rule.
Gained loyalty of Vassals and Dukes and took control of the fragmented Italian states and neighboring lands.
Pushed back Hungarians.
*Granted power to Church authorities to weaken power of dukes. Religious leaders swore allegiance to Otto.
William the Conquerer
*led a powerful force across English channel into England
*Became King of England
*reigned 22 years
*stronger central rule on English shires
Pope Benedict IX
*refused papal seat and agreed to a deal with Pope Gregory VII to let him be pope
*this was labelled simony
*Henry III forced Gregory to step down, new pope appointed who makes further laws against simony
Henry IV/Pope Gregory VII
Henry IV: King of Germany, papal authorities saw a way to assert power over lay rulers and declared that the Catholic cardinals would select the pope. 1075, Pope Gregory declared that only cardinals would select pope, Henry objected, was excommunicated, and apologized
Pope Urban II
*calls on European Lords to launch crusades
*increases Pope's power
parishes under the religious guidance of the bishop/archbishop
a system in which religious figures take special oaths and live together in group homes known as monasteries
monk or member of religious order who disavows property and fulfills monastic service by traveling abroad and preaching
doctrines recorded by early Church fathers and then by councils of bishops and various popes. The doctrines gave order over the Church and laid out a structure of hierarchy and decided important matters of faith and gave shape to Church rituals and other practices
How did Charlemagne act as a champion of the church
expanded Christian influence as he expanded empire.
believed that as a king, he should work to strengthen Church; issued reforms and appointed bishops
What were the powers of the Church?
*controlled great deal of land and wealth
*held keys to Heaven
How were monasteries financed?
through farming and charitable contributions
gifts by peasants who believed they could ensure their salvation
religious weddings earned money
How did European culture flourish in the Middle Ages?
*Monks studied language, mathematics, music, and other subjects and arts and began schooling others in their realms.
*Monks doubled as artisans/scribes; Book of Kells
*copying of ancient texts (preservation)
*convents gave women opportunity to learn crafts
*stained glass windows, tapestries, other works
Book of Kells
an illuminated manuscript written by the Celtic monks that contains New Testament of Bible, including 4 Gospels, which recount the life of Jesus
What was the significance of stained glass?
passed on religious and other teachings to illiterate peasants of Europe
poet musicians who specialized in performance of long poems and songs about chivalry and romance
referring to a style of architecture that arose in France; it is characterized by pointed arches and vaulted celings
monk who contributed to scholarship during 13th century. He applied reason to questions about religion.
a functional center of religious worship with stunning Gothic architecture constructed during 12th century
Events of early Middle Ages
• Germanic rulers set up fragmented kingdoms that are constantly at war.
• Charlemagne unites Franks under one rule and starts feudal system based on fealty. The Holy Roman Empire rises.
• The Vikings conduct raids across much of Europe but slowly adopt Christianity and blend with other European kingdoms.
• Christianity spreads through missionaries to Germanic tribes, helping to restore order and peace.
Events of High Middle Ages
• Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV has a dispute with the Pope over investing bishops.
• William the Conqueror captures control of England and begins Norman rule there, resulting in a blending of Anglo-Saxon and French culture.
• Monastic schools encourage learning. Monks produce illuminated manuscripts and other fine arts.
• Feudalism and manorialism give structure to European society and government.
What is Scholasticism?
the blending of Greek and Roman philosophies with Christian ideas
the region in Southwest Asia that makes up modern Israel and neighboring lands, including the city of Jerusalem, and is considered sacred to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
one who travels to a holy shrine or sacred site, such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
an unbeliever, with regards to a specific religion, often used to describe those who oppose or do not believe in Christianity
Alexus I appealed to Pope Urban II for help in defending the Byzantine Empire. The Pope called for the Council of Clermont in France and declared the need for military expedition to retake the Holy Land.
People's Crusade 1096
a French monk named Peter the Hermit pulled together a disorganized army of peasants and soldiers with his fiery sermons. Together, they plunged eastward toward Constantinople.
Holy Roman Empire
an empire of lands in Central Europe, largely comprising what is now Germany, that existed from 962 to 1806
also known as military orders, Christian societies of knights founded to support the Crusades and defend Christian lands and pilgrims and for which members took religious vows.
a number of feudal states or kingdoms, beginning with Edessa, Antioch, and Jerusalem, established by European Christian lords in Southwest Asia during the Crusades
Battle at Hattin
Hattin is important because this is where Saladin establishes himself as a military genius. It is Hattin and the Fall of Hattin that really opens up and turns around the Crusades.
Children's Crusade 1212
based on expeditions led by two youths from Europe to reclaim the Holy Land
Impact of the Crusades
*contributed to the construction of many European castles and missions and gave more power to the Church
*contributed to opening up trade in a number of ways. Christian pilgrimage routes were reopened, the use of coin currency increased, and Europeans developed an increased interest in the spice trade and East Asia.
*the exchange that occurred during the Crusades facilitated the spread of Islamic math and science. This exposed Europeans to improvements in navigation techniques. These advancements, in turn, helped to usher in Europe's Age of Exploration and led to nearly five centuries of European cultural and economic dominance.
*contributed to the breakdown of the feudal system of power in Europe
Christian cleric and scholar raised in Jerusalem who recorded the events of the early Crusades
Arab Muslim scholar and official of Damascus who recorded the events of the First Crusade in The Damascus Chronicles
First Crusade 1096-1099
Godfrey of Bouillon and other French Lords marched from Constantinople through lands held by the Seljuk Turks to Antioch. They battled isolated Turkic forces, and Godfrey's brother Baldwin stopped to set up the first Crusader State at Edessa. Crusaders captured Antioch.
On Godfrey's death, Baldwin left Edessa and became the first king of the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem. Although many stayed behind to defend European rule of the Holy Land, most of the Crusaders who had survived the expedition returned home
Second Crusade 1147-1149
When Muslim forces regrouped and attacked Edessa, three Holy Orders-the Teutonic Knights, the Knights Hospitaller, and the Knights Templar-rode forth under the banner of the Second Crusade. They did not go alone. This time, the fervor of the Crusades reached to the highest levels of Europe. Two monarchs, King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany, pledged themselves to the cause and led armies to the Holy Land.
Crusaders turned their sights on Damascus, rather than Edessa, and their poorly organized attack resulted in failure. Again, many Crusaders returned home, while those who remained focused on defending the Kingdom of Jerusalem while Muslim forces became more powerful and encircled them.
Third Crusade 1187-1192
When Saladin's forces took Jerusalem in the 12th century, the call went out across Europe to launch another crusade. Three kings came forward-Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, King Phillip II of France, and King Richard I, later known as Richard the Lionheart, of England.
Frederick Barbarossa died along the way, and Phillip returned to Europe after the capture of Acre in 1191. Only Richard the Lionheart remained to lead the Christian armies. He led many campaigns against Jerusalem and struck up a curious relationship with his foe, Saladin, in the process. He failed to retake the city.
Fourth Crusade 1202-1204
In 1198, Pope Innocent III called for a new Crusade, more out of a desire to elevate the papacy than in response to events in the Holy Land.
Failed to rouse any monarchs. Led largely by French knights, the Crusade set out for the Holy Land in 1202 only to be distracted by Venetian lords who convinced them to capture the wealth and splendor of Eastern Orthodox Constantinople instead. So, rather than retake the Holy Land from Muslim rule, the Fourth Crusade sacked the capital of the Byzantine Empire, a Christian city.
Fall of Acre 1291 Significance
It was the end of the story. It was the last major enclave to fall. End of crusades.
Culture and Art: Early Middle Ages 500-1000 CE
Hildegard of Bingen
Book of Kells
Culture and Art: High Middle Ages 1000-1300 CE
Culture and Art: Late Middle Ages 1300-1500 CE
The Divine Comedy
a Renaissance cultural movement that moved away from medieval schools of thought and created a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought
known as the father of humanism and remembered for his Italian poetry
author of the highly popular Decameron in which he collected a great many stories about life in medieval Italy
wrote The Divine Comedy, an epic poem composed of many dialects. Today he is known as "The Father of the Italian Language" and "The Supreme Poet."
Benedict's twin sister. The two siblings often discussed spiritual matters. Both of them have been deemed saints by the Roman Catholic Church.
Benedict of Nursia
most influential monk of early Middle Ages, famous for his Benedictine Rule. One of his biggest contributions was to emphasize communal living, saying that no monk could own anything, no matter how small. Promoted obedience, silence, and poverty.
What does Benedict's Rule do?
establishes a balance between work, prayer, and study for monks.
What role did Monks play during Middle Ages?
They copied ancient and Christian texts by hand. Painted colorful decorations on margins of pages to create illuminated manuscripts.
Some influenced the Christian monastic practice.
Polyphonic music vs. homophonic music?
Poly: music that has all voices singing the same rhythm but on different notes.
Homo: music in which all voices sing together, without harmony
Hildegard of Bingen
a German mystic, abbess, and composer of the 12th century. As one of the few prominent women in Church history, Hildegard and her work have received a large amount of attention.
sacred homophonic music
Why did the Catholic church build grand cathedrals during Middle Ages?
Because they wanted people to have places to worship. As monastic communities grew in size, churches needed to expand to accommodate large numbers of worshipers and visitors.
one of the first poems in English language, written by Geoffrey Chaucer in 1300s.
How did Painting techniques change through Middle Ages?
The European Renaissance revived the use of perspective in paintings, the use of frescoes was developed by Giotto, who's work became the framework for Modern European painting. Celtic themes influenced art, such as the use of intricate motifs, braids, metalworking, and illusions. Byzantine work with icons painted on wood influenced. Islam contributed its mosaics and calligraphy.
soaring to sky
large, stained glass windows
impression of grounded on earth
rounded arches and walls
thick stone walls
epic poem composed between the 8th and 11th centuries by an unknown author, in the language of Old English, telling the story of the Scandinavian hero Beowulf. It is considered one of the most important works of the English language.
mural paintings using watercolors on plaster and walls
father of modern European painting
Ferdinand and Isabella
Their marriage unified the Iberian Peninsula religiously, linguistically, and nationally
took away some of the privileges that the nobles enjoyed in order to consolidate power. They also sent their own royal officials to govern towns and set up special courts that would punish criminals.
Henry II of England
He set up common laws and lessened the power of nobles by forcing them to pledge loyalty to him.
William the Conquerer
A Norman king who attacked England in 1066 and used feudal system to control nobles, claiming all the land of England as his.
employed unfair taxes; forced to sign Magna Carta
Philip IV of France
1302—established Estates-General: a legislative body in France made up of the different classes of French subjects
a contract between the English King and the nobles that limited the power of the king; limited king's power of taxation and required trials before punishment. Led to the formation of modern Parliaments because it equalized social classes (peasants who were king's closest advisers would go to meetings or work on the law with lords/barons).
Changes in Parliament
later divided into two groups: the House of Lords, made up of nobles and clergy, and the House of Commons where knights and townspeople met
Hundred Year's war
England still controlled a small part of southwest France. France's kings were becoming more powerful, and even with the connection between them and the line of French kings in England, they wanted the English out of France completely. Then in 1337, the situation grew worse when the English king Edward II declared himself king of France.
Joan of Arc
Joan felt that the angels were telling her that she must save France. To do this, she sought out the French dauphin Charles and told him that God had sent her to help him win the war against the English.
She led the attack against the English army and, in just ten days, successfully dislodged the English and freed the city of Orleans and became a symbol of the unification of France and played a key role in helping France regain a national identity because everyone could identify with her and with their newly-strengthened country.
After the pope's death, Philip decided to move the official office of the pope from Rome, Italy, to Avignon, France. This had the effect of putting the pope under Philip's control. Now people all over Europe believed that the Church was simply a puppet for the French king. Ultimately, when another pope was elected in Rome, the Catholic Church was faced with the reality of having two popes in two different cities. This is what is meant by the Great Schism.
the Spanish name for the centuries-long Christian conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
How did the monarchs in Europe respond the decline of feudalism?
As feudalism began to unravel, monarchs started to gobble up the small feudal towns and provinces into larger kingdoms. More land meant more power for these monarchs. Stronger monarchs would help to begin the process of creating national identities for England, France, and Spain.
Effects of Norman invasion?
resistance from English elite—he was able to use feudal system to control English nobles and keep them from revolting. He claimed ownership of all England's land. The invasion changed the course of English history and contributed to development of unified nation. Norman kings levied taxes. His great-grandson, Henry II, forced English nobals to pledge loyalty and used law to centralize his power and establish common laws that applied to everyone. They took control of criminal proceedings out of hands of local lords. Led to Magna Carta.
Why was the narrative of the Spanish reconquest such a powerful unifying theme in Spain?
This popular story had the effect of blending the identity of being Spanish with the identity of being Catholic.
Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE):
the most important model for the Japanese in creating a centralized government. At this time, China was ruled by a divine monarch who sat atop an enormous government bureaucracy. In Tang China, a high-class aristocracy ruled from a central capital city. The large bureaucracy that was created employed Chinese men who passed difficult civil service exams that tested their knowledge of the teachings of Confucius
form of polytheistic nature worship that had guided Japanese for centuries
Hierarchy of Japan
title applied to the chief military commanders in Medieval Japan
Great feudal warlord, vassal of the shogun. Lords of their lands. The land and all that it and its resident peasants produced could be used by the daimyo at his discretion. Some daimyo gained great wealth from the crops and goods produced by their serf-like peasants. A portion of these goods was sent to the shogun. A small amount was left to keep the Japanese peasants alive.
Warrior vassals who were very loyal to their clan or shogun. The number and quality of their samurai determined how powerful and successful warrior clans were. The typical samurai of this time was a mounted warrior highly skilled in archery. Some samurai helped to develop crafts among their peasants.
Fujiwara Regency 9th century
leaders of this clan became high-ranking officials in government. Though they were not emperors, their power was such that they effectively ruled the nation; dictators
patrons of the arts, both literature and painting flourished during this period. Women were vital to blossoming of Japan's arts. Aristocratic Japanese women were taught reading and writing Japanese, but not Chinese because that was reserved for political leaders who were all men.
Poetry evolved in japan. Tanka is like haiku with rigid form and set numbers of syllables making up each of its 5-7lines.
Paintings also flourished. Yamato-e paintings depicted life and people of Japanese court, Buddhist monasteries, and monks.
a time of exceptional cultural innovation. Increased trade with China brought Japan new wealth as well as new materials and products.
Why was the Heian period an important part of the political history of Japan?
Emperor Kammu in the 9th century developed the role of the shogun as military leader; a relatively peaceful time
What did Minamoto Yoritomo do?
most powerful leader in Japan. Established rule of the warrior as administrative authority in Japan. Bakufu, which literally means "tent government," derives from the field headquarters used by warrior generals during times of conflict. Bakufu became the established form of government in Japan. It was military governance by independent warlords, each in his fiefdom, and it shaped feudalism in Japan.
Why was the population of Japan more receptive to Zen Buddhism?
European missionaries came offering trade if they converted; They longed for a simpler and more direct teaching. Zen Buddhism addressed their need for a Buddhist practice that focused on personal experience. Zen teaches that enlightenment can be realized by anyone who makes the effort to achieve perfect concentration and awareness that is detached from worldly distractions. Zen thus opened a type of "salvation" to the peasant and the lord equally.
How did the Mongol invasions affect the way Japan viewed outsiders?
Genghis Khan and his son's combined efforts with China in the 13th century led attacks on Japan that failed.
Even though many, if not most, of the Chinese soldiers who fought with the Mongols did so under compulsion, the Japanese deeply resented the Chinese for siding with the invading Mongols. A new period of isolationism began in Japan
Why did power-sharing not work in Japan?
Power-sharing often causes problems
Emperor Go-Daigo (1318-39 CE) decided that he wanted total power for his court, and the system broke down. When Go-Daigo tried to undermine the bakufu system, civil war erupted. Clans joined forces to overthrow the monarch. At first, the clans were defeated by the emperor's forces. But another civil war—lasting from 1336 to 1392 CE—finally drove Go-Daigo from power. The rebellion's leading shogun, Ashikaga, became the leader of Japan
Ashikaga Period (1392-1573 CE):
notable for the dominance of bakufu. Whereas previous shogun allowed the imperial court to have at least some authority, the Ashikaga shogunate stripped the imperial government of its remaining power. Despite political unrest, trade with China flourished in the second half of the Ashikaga period. Villages grew into modest cities. Fish, rice, salt, and manufactured goods were traded in growing market towns.
Some daimyo became a type of merchant class.
Onin War (1467-77 CE)
capital city of Kyoto was destroyed, essentially ending the national authority of bakufu. The power vacuum created by this decade-long war tipped Japan into another period of chaos. A fierce struggle for land and power ensued.
Why did Hideyoshi decide to invade Korea?
He saw China as a rival, so he attempted to invade Korea to gain access to China and defeat the Chinese
Exile of christians, kabuki theater, and Hideyoshi's campaigns
Noh (which means "skill") is one of the oldest forms of theater in the world. It is strict to the extreme. The actors are masked. Their movements are highly constrained, but each movement is prescribed and precise. The aristocrats who attended Noh performances knew the "story" behind the performance. The beauty of Noh was in its power as a cultural and historical metaphor.
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