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68 terms

Fall Academic Vocabulary

1. thought of apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or actual instances: an abstract idea.
2. expressing a quality or characteristic apart from any specific object or instance, as justice, poverty, and speed.
3. theoretical; not applied or practical: abstract science.
4. difficult to understand; abstruse: abstract speculations.
1. pertaining to or proceeding by analysis ( opposed to synthetic).
2. skilled in or habitually using analysis.
3. (of a language) characterized by a relatively frequent use of function words, auxiliary verbs, and changes in word order to express syntactic relations, rather than of inflected forms. Compare synthetic ( def. 3 ) , polysynthetic ( def. 1 ) .
1. suitable or fitting for a particular purpose, person, occasion, etc.: an appropriate example; an appropriate dress.
2. belonging to or peculiar to a person; proper: Each played his appropriate part.
1. near or approaching a certain state, condition, goal, or standard.
2. nearly exact; not perfectly accurate or correct: The approximate time was 10 o'clock.
3. near; close together.
4. very similar; nearly identical.
1. uttered clearly in distinct syllables.
2. capable of speech; not speechless.
3. using language easily and fluently; having facility with words: an articulate speaker.
4. expressed, formulated, or presented with clarity and effectiveness: an articulate thought.
1. not false or copied; genuine; real: an authentic antique.
2. having the origin supported by unquestionable evidence; authenticated; verified: an authentic document of the Middle Ages; an authentic work of the old master.
1. lasting or taking a short time; of short duration: a brief walk; a brief stay in the country.
2. using few words; concise; succinct: a brief report on weather conditions.
3. abrupt or curt.
1. logically connected; consistent: a coherent argument.
2. cohering; sticking together: a coherent mass of sticky candies.
3. having a natural or due agreement of parts; harmonious: a coherent design.
1. belonging equally to, or shared alike by, two or more or all in question: common property; common interests.
2. ommunity, nation, or culture; public: a common language or history; a common water-supply system.
3. joint; united: a common defense.
4. widespread; general; ordinary: common knowledge.
5. of frequent occurrence; usual; familiar: a common event; a common mistake.
1. having all parts or elements; lacking nothing; whole; entire; full: a complete set of Mark Twain's writings.
2. finished; ended; concluded: a complete orbit.
3. having all the required or customary characteristics, skills, or the like; consummate; perfect in kind or quality: a complete scholar.
4. thorough; entire; total; undivided, uncompromised, or unmodified: a complete victory; a complete mess.
expressing or covering much in few words; brief in form but comprehensive in scope; succinct; terse: a concise explanation of the company's retirement plan.
1. constituting an actual thing or instance; real: a concrete proof of his sincerity.
2. pertaining to or concerned with realities or actual instances rather than abstractions; particular ( opposed to general): concrete ideas.
1. agreeing or accordant; compatible; not self-contradictory: His views and actions are consistent.
2. constantly adhering to the same principles, course, form, etc.: a consistent opponent.
1. not changing or varying; uniform; regular; invariable: All conditions during the three experiments were constant.
2. continuing without pause or letup; unceasing: constant noise.
verb (used with object)
1. to exercise restraint or direction over; dominate; command.
2. to hold in check; curb: to control a horse; to control one's emotions.
1. capable of being believed; believable: a credible statement.
2. worthy of belief or confidence; trustworthy: a credible witness.
1. involving an extremely important decision or result; decisive; critical: a crucial experiment.
1. increasing or growing by accumulation or successive additions: the cumulative effect of one rejection after another.
2. formed by or resulting from accumulation or the addition of successive parts or elements.
14. proceeding in a straight line or by the shortest course; straight; undeviating; not oblique: a direct route.
15. proceeding in an unbroken line of descent; lineal rather than collateral: a direct descendant.
5. marked by discrimination; making or evidencing nice distinctions: discriminate people; discriminate judgments

discriminate -verb
1. to make a distinction in favor of or against a person or thing on the basis of the group, class, or category to which the person or thing belongs rather than according to actual merit; show partiality: The new law discriminates against foreigners. He discriminates in favor of his relatives.
1. according to or agreeing with the principles of logic: a logical inference.
2. reasoning in accordance with the principles of logic, as a person or the mind: logical thinking.
1. chief in size, extent, or importance; principal; leading: the company's main office; the main features of a plan.
4. Grammar . syntactically independent; capable of use in isolation. Compare dependent ( def. 4 ) , independent ( def. 14 ) , main clause.
not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased: an objective opinion.
1. left to one's choice; not required or mandatory: Formal dress is optional.
1. able, fitted, or intended to persuade: a very persuasive argument.

2. to induce to believe by appealing to reason or understanding; convince: to persuade the judge of the prisoner's innocence.
1. having an appearance of truth or reason; seemingly worthy of approval or acceptance; credible; believable: a plausible excuse; a plausible plot.
1. that may or can be, exist, happen, be done, be used, etc.: a disease with no possible cure.
2. that may be true or may be the case, as something concerning which one has no knowledge to the contrary: It is possible that he has already gone.
1. coming or occurring before something else; prior: the previous owner.
1. first or highest in rank or importance; chief; principal: his primary goals in life.
2. first in order in any series, sequence, etc.
3. first in time; earliest; primitive.
1. preceding in time or in order; earlier or former; previous: A prior agreement prevents me from accepting this.
1. likely to occur or prove true: He foresaw a probable business loss. He is the probable writer of the article.
2. having more evidence for than against, or evidence that inclines the mind to belief but leaves some room for doubt.
-adjective, rar·er, rar·est.
1. coming or occurring far apart in time; unusual; uncommon: a rare disease; His visits are rare occasions.
2. thinly distributed over an area; few and widely separated: Lighthouses are rare on that part of the coast.
1. usual; normal; customary: to put something in its regular place.
2. evenly or uniformly arranged; symmetrical: regular teeth.
3. characterized by fixed principle, uniform procedure, etc.: regular income.
bearing upon or connected with the matter in hand; pertinent: a relevant remark.
1. required or necessary for a particular purpose, position, etc.; indispensable: the requisite skills of an engineer.
1. of or pertaining to space.
2. existing or occurring in space; having extension in space.
3. peculiar or proper to somebody or something, as qualities, characteristics, effects, etc.: His specific problems got him into trouble.
4. of a special or particular kind.
24. of recognized excellence or established authority: a standard reference on medieval history.
25. usual, common, or customary: Chairs are standard furniture in American households.
1. existing in the mind; belonging to the thinking subject rather than to the object of thought ( opposed to objective).
1. occurring or coming later or after (often fol. by to ): subsequent events; Subsequent to their arrival in Chicago, they bought a new car.
2. following in order or succession; succeeding: a subsequent section in a treaty.
1. expressed in few words; concise; terse.
2. characterized by conciseness or verbal brevity.
1. of the nature of or serving as a type or representative specimen.
2. conforming to a particular type.
1. existing as the only one or as the sole example; single; solitary in type or characteristics: a unique copy of an ancient manuscript.
2. having no like or equal; unparalleled; incomparable: Bach was unique in his handling of counterpoint.
1. sound; just; well-founded: a valid reason.
2. producing the desired result; effective: a valid antidote for gloom.
3. having force, weight, or cogency; authoritative.
-verb (used with object)
1. to shorten (a word or phrase) by omitting letters, substituting shorter forms, etc., so that the shortened form can represent the whole word or phrase, as ft. for foot, ab. for about, R.I. for Rhode Island, NW for Northwest, or Xn for Christian.
2. to reduce (anything) in length, duration, etc.; make briefer: to abbreviate a speech.
-verb (used without object)
1. to be in agreement or harmony; agree.
-verb (used with object)
11. to direct a speech or written statement to: to address an assembly.
12. to use a specified form or title in speaking or writing to: Address the President as "Mr. President."
-verb (used with object)
1. to act on; produce an effect or change in: Cold weather affected the crops.
2. to impress the mind or move the feelings of: The music affected him deeply.
-verb (used with object)
1. to make different in some particular, as size, style, course, or the like; modify: to alter a coat; to alter a will; to alter course.
-verb (used with object), -lyzed, -lyz·ing.
1. to separate (a material or abstract entity) into constituent parts or elements; determine the elements or essential features of ( opposed to synthesize): to analyze an argument.
2. to examine critically, so as to bring out the essential elements or give the essence of: to analyze a poem.
-verb (used with object)
1. to supply with critical or explanatory notes; comment upon in notes: to annotate the works of Shakespeare.
-verb (used without object)
2. to make annotations or notes
-verb (used with object)
1. to realize beforehand; foretaste or foresee: to anticipate pleasure.
2. to expect; look forward to; be sure of: to anticipate a favorable decision.
-verb (used with object)
1. to make use of as relevant, suitable, or pertinent: to apply a theory to a problem.
2. to put to use, esp. for a particular purpose: to apply pressure to open a door.
-verb (used with object)
1. to come near or nearer to: The cars slowed down as they approached the intersection.
2. to come near to in quality, character, time, or condition; to come within range for comparison: As a poet he hardly approaches Keats.
-verb (used without object)
1. to present reasons for or against a thing: He argued in favor of capital punishment.
2. to contend in oral disagreement; dispute: The Senator argued with the President about the new tax bill.
-verb (used with object)
1. to place in proper, desired, or convenient order; adjust properly: to arrange books on a shelf.
2. to come to an agreement or understanding regarding: The two sides arranged the sale of the property.
9. To utter clearly and distinctly; pronounce with clarity.
10. Phonetics . to make the movements and adjustments of the speech organs necessary to utter (a speech sound).
11. to give clarity or distinction to: to articulate a shape; to articulate an idea.
1. to bring together or gather into one place, company, body, or whole.
2. to put or fit together; put together the parts of: to assemble information for a report; to assemble a toy from a kit.
to state with assurance, confidence, or force; state strongly or positively; affirm; aver: He asserted his innocence of the crime.
to estimate or judge the value, character, etc., of; evaluate.
to connect or bring into relation, as thought, feeling, memory, etc.
to take on (a particular character, quality, mode of life, etc.)
to conduct or practice brainstorming: a conference technique of solving specific problems, amassing information, stimulating creative thinking, developing new ideas, etc., by unrestrained and spontaneous participation in discussion.
to make an abstract or summary of.
to determine by reasoning, common sense, or practical experience; estimate; evaluate; gauge.
to mark or distinguish as a characteristic; be a characteristic of.
to quote (a passage, book, author, etc.), esp. as an authority.
to mention in support, proof, or confirmation; refer to as an example
to assert and demand the recognition of (a right, title, possession, etc.)

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