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Rigth triangleHas one right angle 90 and two acute anglesAcute triangleall 3 angles less than 90Obtuse2 acute and one angle greater then 90Triangle inequality theoremstates that the sum of any two sides of a triangle must be greater than the third sideThird-side rule of trianglesthree sides, a, b, c. c-b < a < c+bPythagorean TheoremThe relatioship between the sides of a right triangle is a2 + b2 = c2 (all squared) where c is the hypotenuse and is across from the right angle.Right triangle with angle measurements 90-45-45Special right triangle. the hypotenuse is equal to the square root of 2xRight triangle with angle measurments 90-60-30Special right trianlge.hypotenuse is 2x. the short side is x and the long side is square root of 3xQuadrilateralsA closed, 4 sided shape. The sum of all 4 sides is always equal to 360. The AREA of quadrilateral is always A= bh (base time height)ParallelogramA quadrilateral with two pairs of equal side. Two consecutive sides in a parallelogram are supplementary = 180Rectangletwo pairs of equal sides and four right anglesKitetwo pairs of equal sides but the equal sides are consecutiveSquare4 right angles and 4 equal sidesRhombus4 equal sides. diagonals bisects angles and bisect one anotherTrapezoidOne pair of sides is parallel bases have different lengthsPolygonsAny closed shape made up of 3 or more line segments. Hexagon = 6, Octagon = 8 The sum of all exterior angles in a polygon is 360Finding the sum of the interior angles of polygons(n-2) x 180 where n is the number of sides the polygon has. To find a single interior angle simply divide the total interior angles by the # of sides and therefor anglesApothemthe shortest PERPENDICULAR distande from one of the sides to the centerArea of PolygonA = ap/2 (apothem x perimeter)finding an interior angle of a polygon(n-2)/n x 180Area of CircleA = PieRsquaredVolumedescribes as the amount of cubic units any shape can holdSurface areaThe sum of the areas of the 2 dimensional figures that make up its shape.Slant heightThe distance from the base to the apex along the lateral surfacePrismTopicThe overall subject matter of the passageMain IdeaWhat the author wants to say about the topicStandard rate turn360 degrees in 2 minutes at 3 degrees per secondSlipping turngravity is greater than teh centrifugal force on the ball and thus it slips to the insideSkidding turnCentrifugal force in greater than gravity and therefor the ball moves to the outside of the coordinator.Agonic vs Isogonic LinesAgonic is when variation is 0 Isogonic is when Magnetic variation is either greater or less then 0Runway end lights and edges lights-Red lights, and outward from runway end they are green to indicated the threshold. -yellow edge lights in last 2000 feet or at half the distance of runway, whichever is lessJuly 2, 1900Zepplin makes it first flightOct 20, 1900The wright brothers make their first glider flightDec 17, 1903The wright brothers make their first powered, manned, heavier than air controlled flight (lasted 12 seconds)February 22, 1920The first transcontinental mail service is established from San Francisco to New YorkMarch 3, 1923The first non stop coast-tocoast airplane travels from New York to San DiegoMay 21, 1927Charles A. Lindbergh accomplishes the first nonstop flight across the Atlantic OceanJune 29, 1927The first trans-pacific flight travels from California to HawaiiJune 1, 1937Amelia Earhart is lost in route to Howland island from New GuineaJune 28, 1939Pan American Airways flies the first trans-Atlantic passenger flight serviceOct 14, 1947Captian Charles E Yeager exceeds the sound barrier in a rocketMay 5, 1961Alan Shepard pilots the first US manned space flightFeb 20, 1962John Glen becomes the first America to orbit the earthDec 27, 1968Apollo8 is the first human flight to orbit the moonSept 3, 1971The concorde makes its first transatlantic crossing1978The US Airline Deregulation act ends government regulation of airline routes.Oct 24, 2003The Concorde supersonic jet makes its last flight.How many Feet in a Meter?3.28 feet in 1 MeterIsotopesAtoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutronsHow do microscopes workthey REFRACT or bend light waves to make objects look biggerMagnituderefers to how much energy is releasedCombustion reactionCombustion is defined as a reaction in which a hydrocarbon reacts with O2 to produce CO2 and waterfrictiondefined as a force that always opposes motionnormal forcebalances out gravity in resting objects. book resting on a tableTensionthe force felt by pull of an object by anotherPlanetsMVEMJSUN Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus NeptuneMineralsNaturally occurring solid crystalline structure composed of single chemical compound INORGANIC, only a rock can be composed or organic materialMast (Shaft)Is a long cylindrical component that extends vertically from the main rotor transmission up to the main rotor hub. It is responsible for the main drive force that turns the main rotor hub.Main rotor hubThe part where all the components of the main rotor head are attached. this includes the blade grips, the rotor blades, the pitch horn (or yoke), the stabilizer bar and weight (or flybar), and the teeter hinge (or trunnion)Blade Gripsconnect the rotor blades to the rotor system. the primary responsibility of the blade grips is to allow the rotor blades to feather. Feathering is a term used to describe the change of the blades' angle relative to their rotation plane (also known as the angle of attack.Rotoe BladesMade of metal, but sometimes fiberglass or carbon fiber. Shaped like an airfoil, give helicopter lift.Pitch Horn / YokeExtends perpendicular to the main rotor blades. It connects directly to the blade grips and stabalizer bar and receives control inputs from the pitch links. Its job is to collect input from the pilot and translate that input into force, moving the blade grips. This force fethers the blades, or changes their angle if attackStabalizer Bar and Weight or Flybarhelp to maintain a constant plane of rotation for the rotor blades. The stabalizer bar is connected to the swashplate via a series of mechanical linkages, which combine with the stabilizer bar to dampen any over-control by the pilot as well as help the aircraft weather any extreme wind gusts, thereby reducing pilot workload.Teeter HingeLike a teeter-totter (hence the name), the trunnion connects the mast to the main rotor hub. the teeter hinge allows the rotor hub and blades to flap up and down depending on control input and aerodynamic forces. As one blade rises, the teeter hinge enables the opposite blade to fall in its plane of rotation, like teeter-totter.SwashplateWithout a swahplate directional control of a helicopter would not be possible. Components: Inner - non- rotating Outer - rotating form concentric rings which rest on a type of bearing. The mast goes through the center of the swashplate and the scissor links connect the rotating hub to the outer, rotating swashplate. The inner, rotating swashplate lifts and tilts, controlling the directional movement of the outer, which changes the pitch of the rotor blades.Pitch Links / Push Pull TubesConnect to both the rotating swashplate and the stabilizer bar, or directly to the pitch horn. Pitch links are the mechanical linkage that translates pilot input to control the blades' pitch.Tail BoomThe structural component of the helicopter that supports the tail rotor and in some cases the directional finsNOTARNo Tail RotorDucted FanOn some NOTARs this fans controls air that is vectors out of a fan at the end of the tail boom to counter act torque effect. Air vents out at 90 degrees and is controlled by a louver that determines how much air is releasedCowlingPieces of the outer skim of a helicopter that protect important ares from aerodynamic and environmental forces. Also allows for maintenanceSkids.type of landing gear that run parallel to the helicopter and allow it to land safely without damaging the under carriageMagnus effectthe upward force of the fast moving, high pressure air pushing up on the rotor blades. 1852 German Physicist Gustav Magnus official discoveryInduced Flow or Downwash,the column of air passing through the rotor blades. IGE and OGETranslating Tendencytedency of rotor wng aircraft to drift laterally due to tail rotor thrust. the tail rotor of a rotary wing aircraft is used to counteract torque and to provide directional control of the aricraft. as the main rotor blade turns the airframe wants to rotate opposite that movement. the tail rotor created horizontal thrust necessary to counteract that rotational pull of the aircraft, which results in the helicopter drifting laterallyGyroscopic PrecessionA force applied to a rotating disc is felt 90 degrees in direction of rotationTransverse Flow EffectRight Rolling motion. Lateral rolling. When the helicopter begins to accelerate 10-20 kts. the induced flow created by the lifting action of the rotor blades drops to nearly 0 in the front half of the rotor system and increases in the rear half of the rotor system. In contrast, as the induced flow increases in the rear half of the rotor system, the angle of attack decreases, causing the blades to flap down. Due to precession, the displacement of the flapping blades is not felt until 90 degrees later which causes the rolling laterallyTranslational Lift. Any horizontal airflow . while helis hover, the induced flow created is nearly vertical. As this vertical column of air hits the ground, it extends outward in all directions and is often pulled back vertically to be recirculated through the aircrafts rotor system. This movement of air creates vortices at the end of the rotor blades. it is these vorices the hinder the effectiveness of the rotor system, requiring more power for the aircraft to stay aloftEffective Translation Lift16-24 knots. As the heli begins to move forward or laterally it begins to outrun its vortices, and gains efficiency.Dissymerty of liftunequal lifting by the advancing and retreating blades. Counter clockwise rotating causes the right advancing blade to experience the increase in airflow.AutorotationBlades are driven by relative wind instead of by the aircrafts power plantCollective ControlLocated to the left of the pilots seat is used to collectively change the pitch of the blades.Tail Rotor Pedals or Directional controlscontrols yaw. the tail rotor pedals, much like the collective control changes the pitch of the b=tail rotor blades, adding more or less horizontal lift.Throttle ControlMany helis have self-governing, computer driven throttles that are monitored by a computer once the aircraft is put in a flight setting. Smaller and some older helicopters have a twisting throttle on the cyclic.Cyclic Control SystemMounted on the flight deck floor and centered between the pilots legs is used to adjust the pilots pitch and roll axes. able to change the lift vector 360 degrees.Covalent BondElectrons are shared in a moleculeIonic BondTwo ions with opposite charges are attracted to each other and bind togetherIsotopesWhile all atoms of an element have the same number of protons, they can have a different number of neutrons and electrons, Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons are called isotopes. They can also have different masses because neutrons carry the most weight.IonsAtoms of the same element with different number of electrons and will have a charge. Positive ions are called cations and negative ions are called anions. If an atom has the same number of protons and neutrons it is neutralMoleculeWhen two or more atoms join togetherShellselectrons orbit the nucleus in increasing energy levels called shellsValence (elecrons)the outermost shell of electrons. Used for chemical reactions. atoms will give valence electrons if the are almost empty and will receive electrons if the are almost fullELEMENTAtoms of an element will always have the same number of protons called the ATOMIC NUMBER. APPX 109 KNOWN ELEMENTS. 88 of these occur naturally on earthPeriodic table groups (Vertical)-will have the same number of Valence electrons -Periodic Table Row (horizontal)Corresponds to the number of electron shellsCompundsSubsstances that contain more that one element. (so therfore, molecules are also compounds)Pure substancesCompounds made up of identical moleculesMixtureis made up of two or more substances that are not chemically bondedHomogenous Mixtureuniformly distributed. Ex. salt water and airHeterogenous mixturenot uniformly distributed.. Ex. Vegetable soup, Rocks and soilPercent =Part / WholeWhole =Part / PercentPart =Whole x PercentWavelengthlength of each cycle of the wave which can be measured between crestsVenus and Mercury lackmoonsA Strong AcidIonizes in waterCharacteristics of AcidsVINEGAR Sour React with metals to make gas feels like water turn indicator paper red H+Characteristics of BaseSOAP bitter don't react with anything metallic slippery turn indicator paper blue ending in OH (hydroxide) 1-Rock cycleVolcic eruption -> Igneous rock->weathering->semiment->compaction->sedimentary rock-> heat and pressure-> metamorphic rock -> extremem heat and pressure -> magmaMechanical Weatheringinvolves breaking a substance down without changing its chemical structure. Ex. Tree root crack a houseMetamorphic rockExtreme heat and pressure turn sedimentary rock into metamorphic rockHigh Manifold pressure in HeloDown on collective. Collective adjusts manifold pressure.LipidsFats and Oils in the body are lipidsSlope Intercept FromY = Mx + B; where M is the slope (Rise over Run) and B is the Y interceptStandard for of a Linear EquationAx + By = C; where the x intercept is C/A; the Y intercept is C/B and the slope is m=-B/ATo find the y intercept simply set x to 0To Find the X intercept simply set y to 0To find the slope of a line on a graphPick two points then plug in there values into the slope equation y2-y1/x2-x1Layers of the EarthLithosphere Aesthenosphere Mesosphere Outer core (liquid zinc, iron, nickel) Inner core (solid)Distance FormulaThe distance formula finds the distance of a line between 2 points that terminates at those 2 points. The distance formula represents the pythagoreans theorem because it is essentially finding the hypotenuse of a right triangle.Midpoint FormulaThe midpoint formula is essentially finding the point that is exactly in between two points. All you have to do to find the midpoint is take the average of the x values and the average of the y values.Quadratic EquationsGraphed as a parabola.. The parent equations is y = x2 (squared). The vertex is where the parabola changes directions. The axis of symmetry is the point where if you drew a line drew it the graph could fold over on itself identically. Can be expressed in two ways. y = ax^2 + bx + c y = a(x-h)^2 + k In both equations, the sign of a determines the direction the parabola opens. The wideness of narrowness is also determined by a. if the absolute value of a > 1,Zeros or Roots of a quadratic equationy= ax^2 + bx + caxis of symmetry: x = -b/2a vertex: (-b/2a, f-b/2a)y= a(x-h)^2 + kAxis of symmetry: x = h vertex: (h,k)Quadratic equationsThe discriminant, the portion under the square, determines how many and what kind of roots there will be. If b^2 - 4ac is... 0 - there will be 1 real root and the parabola has its vertex on the x-axis positive- there will be 2 real roots and 2 x intercepts negative - 0 real roots, 2 complex roots and no x-intercepts1 Radian = ? degrees57.3 degreesComplementaryadd up to 90Supplementaryadd up to 180Linear Pair anglesAdjacent and supplementaryAngle BisectorA ray, line or line segment that divides and angle into 2 equal anglesPithe ratio of a circles circumference to its diameterCircumferenceArea of circleSecanta line that cuts across a circle and touches it twiceChordthe part of a secant that lies within a circlea Tangenttouches a circle onceArcany portion of a circle between two points on that circle. The measure of an arc is in DEGREES, where the length of an arc is a linear measurement such as inches or metersArea of a sector of circleInscribed AngleCircumscribed angleAngles outside a circlehalf the difference of intersected angleAngle inside a circlehalf the sum of intersected angleTriangle : three important terms1. Angle Bisector - extends from the side opposite an angle to bisect that angle 2. Altitude - the shortest distance from a vertex of the triangle to the side opposite side 3. Median - extends from an angel to bisect the opposite side.Centers of a triangleCentroid- the point at which the triangles three medians intersect Orthocenter - formed by the intersection of the triangles three altitudesTriangles based on sidesScalene - no equal sides Isosceles - 2 equal sides and two equal angles often called base angles equilateral - 3 equal sides 3 equal angles. 60-60-60triangles based on angleRight triangle- one right angle and 2 acute angles Acute - has three acute angles . all less than 90 Obtuse - has one obtuse angle and 2 acute anglesTriangle Inequality TheoremThe sum of any two angles of a triangle must be greater than the third sideThird-side rule of trianglesthe third side (a) of a triangle must be between the sum of the two other sides (b + c) and the difference of the other two sides (b-c)Pythagorean Theorema^2 + b^2 = c^2 relationship of right triangles sides where c is the hypotenuse.Special right trianglesQuadrilateralssum always 360 A = bhParallelogramtwo equal sidesKiteTwo equal sides that are consecutiveNewtons three laws of motion1. Law of inertia . 2. F = MA 3. For any force there is an equal and opposite reactionNewtons first Law, Law of inertiaAn object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon n y an unbalanced forceNewtons second law, Force = Mass x AccelerationWhen a body is acted upon by an constant force its resulting acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the body and directly proportional to the applied force. Force measured in N Newtons Mass in Kilograms Acceleration measures in Meters per second per second or M/Sec^2Newtons third law, equal and oppositeif two objects interact, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force exerted by the second on the first.4 Types of frictionSliding (kinetic)- results when the surface of an object resits motion Fluid friction- results when an object moves through air or water Rolling friction - when something rolls Static friction - is what keeps and object at rest when acted upon by an external force.Newtons law of Universal Gravitationstates that a particle attracts every other particle in space with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.Manufacturers Empty Weight (MEW)Total weight of the aircraft as it was built. this includes the system operating components but does not include unusable fuel. before fluids, fuel or oil is inserted.Operating Empty Weight (OEW)is the MEW plus the weight of the crew, fluids, and equipment required for flight. It does not include passengers, baggage, or usable fuelAll-up Weight (AUW) or Aircraft Gross Weight (AGW)Is the aircraft weight at any given moment during flight. the AUW / AGW can decrease at any point during flight.Maximum Landing Weight (MLW)IS the maximum weight limit for landing. Increasing passed this weight may put stress on the landing gear and may require a longer required landing distance.Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (MZFW)is the permissible weight of an aircraft with its contents and includes unusable fuel. it excludes and consumable fluids.Maximum Take-off Weight (MTOW)Is an aircrafts weight limit for takeoff. Exceeding this weight increases the power required for takeoff, lengthens the runway distance required for successful liftoff and places excess stress on the aircraft structureMaximum Ramp Weight (MRW)is the weight limit for an aircraft to taxi or be towed on the ground.Flight Envelopethe flight envelope encompasses the limits of speed, altitude, and angle of attack required by any aircraft to maintain a stable flight.Electromagnetic SpectrumGamma X-ray Ultraviolet Visible Infared Micro Radio Roman Men Invented Very Unusual X-ray GunsVolts ( V )how strongly electricity is being pushed through a circuit. Pressure V = IR Voltage = I (Current, Amps) x R (Resistance, Ohms)Amps ( I )(I) Current, measure. how much electrical charge is flowing passed a given point in 1 secondWatts (W)Demand and Capacity. Power. W = V x I Watts = volts times amps How much energy is consumed in an amount of timeOhms (R)Resistance (R)Metric measurementsKings Hate Dragons Because Dragons Cant Make Money Kilo Hecto Deca Base Deci Centi Milli MicroHow to find the first digit of a square root. Ex. 112092group numbers in pairs starting from the decimal. The square root of the largest square on the left hand side (the first number whether 1 or 2 digit) will be the first digit of the whole number.What measure uses the largest increment? Area, Surface Area, Perimeter, Volume?VOLUME! ex: in x in x in = in^3Volume of Cones or PyramidsTake the area of the base and multiply it by the height. Then take a third of that number. B1/3HPitchAngle between the fuselage and horizonElements in atmoshpere78 % Nitrogen 21 % OxygenPancreasproduces insulinBoyles Lawif pressure of gas is held constant, the volume and temperature and directly proportionalFour gas giantsJupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

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