20 terms

The Study Of Language - George Yule

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displacement
One of the key characteristics of human language which enables it to refer to situations which are not here and now, e.g. I studied linguistics in London when I was in my twenties.
duality
A structural principle of human language whereby larger units consist of smaller building blocks, the number of such blocks being limited but the combinations being almost infinite. For instance all words consist of combinations of a limited number of sounds, say about 40 in either English or German. Equally all sentences consist of structures from a small set with different words occupying different points in the structures allowing for virtually unlimited variety.
reflexivity
The possibility of using language to talk about language; this is one of its delimiting characteristics with respect to other communication systems.
phonetics
is the study of human sounds
phonology
s the study of the sound system of a language or languages
allaphone
The realisation of a phoneme
homophone
Any set of words pronounced the same way, e.g. English poor and pour /pɔ:/ (Received Pronunciation) and German Ferse and Verse.
phoneme
In traditional phonology the smallest unit in language which disinguishes meaning, e.g /k/ and /g/ as seen in coat and goat.
phone
Any human sound which has not been classified in the phonology of a language.
morphology
It is the study of the words as they express grammatical categories.
allomorph
A non-distinctive variant of a morpheme, e.g. -keit and -heit in German (Heiterkeit, Schönheit) which vary according to the final consonant of the base to which they are suffixed but share the same grammatical function of nominal derivation.
morpheme
The smallest unit in a grammar which can contrast with another and which carries meaning.
syntax
It is the study of sentence structure.
grammar
A level of linguistics which is concerned with the manner in which words combine together structurally to form sentences.
semantics
It is the study of meaning in language.
homonym
Any set of words which share their form but have different meanings, e.g. bar 'legal profession' and bar 'public house'. The formal similarity is an accident of phonological development and the forms do not share a common historical root, contrast this situation with that of polysemy.
pragmatics
The study of language in use in interpersonal communication.
presuppositon
Any information which is taken for granted in a discourse situation, for instance the sentence Did you enjoy your breakfast? assumes that the interlocutor already had breakfast.
language
the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way
linguistics
the scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of grammar, syntax, and phonetics. Specific branches of linguistics include sociolinguistics, dialectology, psycholinguistics, computational linguistics, comparative linguistics, and structural linguistics.