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Anatomy Study Modules Chapter 27
Terms in this set (72)
Which of the following hormones causes the conservation of sodium in the kidneys?
What is the most abundant cation in the ECF?
Which component makes up the largest portion of the solid components in the body?
Why is there a difference in the ICF percentages in males versus females?
Greater water content of muscle tissue (75% water) versus adipose tissue (10% water)
Which of the following is true regarding antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and its role in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance?
ADH stimulates water conservation by the kidneys and helps to concentrate the urine
The p in pH refers to
Substances with a pH below 7.0
Substances with a pH above 7.0
Renin is released in response to all of the following except
The decrease in K+ concentration in the renal circulation
The concentrations of the cations and anions in the ICR and ECF are measured in terms of milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). mEq/L represents the
total number of positive and negative electrical charges in a liter of solution
What describes the role of aldosterone in fluid and electrolyte balance?
Aldosterone is secreted in response to an increasing K+ or a decreasing Na+ level in the blood
What is the accurate list the solid components of the human body by weight from greatest to smallest?
Proteins > lipids > minerals > carbohydrates
Osmosis allows water to freely cross plasma membranes except in the -----
ascending limb of the nephron loop
Which is not an ECF?
Which is not a principal ion in the extracellular compartments?
Which of the following is not a hormone that mediates adjustments to fluid balance and electrolyte balance?
What is an electrolyte?
Ions released through the dissociation of inorganic compounds
What are the principal ions in the extracellular fluid?
Sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate
When the amount of water you gain each day is equal to the amount you lose to the environment, you are in __________.
Important homeostatic adjustments occur in response to changes in __________.
plasma volume or osmolarity
Electrolyte balance requires matching the gain of electrolytes from your diet with the loss of electrolytes. Which of the following is NOT a way your body removes electrolytes?
Water, by far, is the biggest component of our body fluids. What is the second-largest component of our body fluids?
Which is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
Which of the following is NOT a principal ion in the intracellular compartment?
Which of the following is a basic principle in understanding fluid and electrolyte balance?
The body's content of water or elctrolytes will increase if dietary gains exceed losses to the environment.
Fluid and electrolyte balance is maintained by receptors that directly measure _________.
overall osmotic concentration
Which of the following is accurate regarding water content?
Water makes up about 60 percent of the total body weight of an adult male.
All of the homeostatic mechanisms that monitor and adjust the composition of body fluids respond to changes in the __________.
When water losses outpace water gains, __________ occurs.
What is the term for an abnormally high concentration of sodium in the ECF?
Which of the following represents the largest volume of water lost each day under normal physiological conditions?
Sodium ions enter the ECF by crossing the digestive epithelium via __________.
diffusion and active transport
Which of the following occurs when an individual loses body water?
Plasma volume decreases, and electrolyte concentrations rise.
Whenever the rate of sodium intake or output changes, there is a corresponding gain or loss of water that tends to __________.
keep the sodium concentration constant
What would be the effect on the osmotic concentration of blood plasma if you were in the desert without water for a day?
The osmotic concentration of your plasma would increase because of water leaving your body.
What is the term for an abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood?
A fluid shift of abnormally large amounts of water from the plasma into the interstitial fluid is called __________.
Extracellular fluids in the body consist of all of the following except __________.
The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by __________.
an imbalance between sodium gains and losses
What is a cause of a fluid shift?
Drinking a large volume of water; Diarrhea; Excessive sweating
What is meant by the term metabolic water?
Water generated during oxidative phosphorylation
Potassium ions are found in the highest concentrations in which of the following fluid compartments?
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
An abnormally high level of which electrolyte could be caused by hyperparathyroidism and would result in kidney stones, confusion, muscle pain, and cardiac arrhythmias?
Which of the following would not be associated with a sensation of increased thirst?
Decrease in the production of ADH
Homeostasis maintains a stable internal environment, composed of our body fluids. Which of the following is NOT one of the processes for stabilizing body fluid volumes?
Which of the following is NOT a source of water gains?
What would be the response of the body to an increase in ECF volume if you were to drink a large quantity of a sports drink?
Decreased thirst; Increased water and sodium loss in the urine; Natriuretic peptides would be released by cardiac muscle cells.
What would happen if you ate a large quantity of salty potato chips without drinking anything?
Secretion of ADH would increase.
Which of the following is NOT a cause of hyperkalemia?
Decreased blood volume
What effect does prolonged sweating have on sodium ion levels?
A loss of sodium ions from the ECF
The body content of water will rise if __________.
intake exceeds outflow
Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the extracellular fluid volume by all of the following mechanisms except __________.
causing the release of ADH
Which of the following is NOT a basic principle for understanding fluid and electrolyte balance?
Water moves into and out of cells by active transport.
Basic principles for understanding fluid and electrolyte balance.
Water moves into and out of cells by active transport.; Water moves into and out of cells by active transport; Water moves into and out of cells by active transport.
What is the kidney's response to acidosis?
Secretion of H+ into urine
Which of the following is NOT a buffer system in the ECF or ICF?
Sulfate buffer system
Which of the following is not consistent with rising CO2 levels?
Additional Na+ ions are released.
Why must tubular fluid in the nephron be buffered?
To keep H+ from diffusing back into the blood, To allow secretion of H+ to continue, To prevent the pH of the urine from becoming too low.
All of the listed choices are correct.
If the partial pressure of CO2 rises in the blood, which of the following happens?
A decrease in pH
Which of the following does not occur when the pH increases (become more basic)?
The carboxylate ion can act as a weak base and accept additional H+ ions.
Which buffer is the most important buffer in the extracellular fluid?
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer
Which of the following is the best way of describing respiratory compensation?
A change in the respiratory rate that helps stabilize the pH of the ECF.
Acidosis is a more common problem than alkalosis because many acids are the direct byproducts of metabolic reactions. Which of the following acids is not a metabolic acid?
Which of the following is a volatile acid and is a product of the combination of carbon dioxide and water?
Severe acidosis (blood pH below 7.0) can be deadly for all of the following reasons except _______________.
hyperventilation leading to a lack of oxygen to critical tissues
Which of the following is not accurate regarding the generation of ammonia within kidney tubules?
Ammonia is broken down by carbonic anhydrase to form ammonium ions.
Acid is a natural byproduct of many metabolic processes. Which of the following does not contribute to an increase in H+?
H+ is increased by expiration of CO2 by the lungs.
Deviations outside of the normal pH range due to increases in hydrogen ion concentrations would do all of the following except __________.
decrease the rate of respiration
Which of the following descriptions is correct?
Respiratory acid-base disorders result from a mismatch between CO2 generation in peripheral tissues and CO2 excretion by the lungs.
Which of the following is NOT a response during the regulation of metabolic alkalosis?
The respiratory rate is increased.
A patient presents with a blood pH of 7.5, a PCO2 of 32, and a normal HCO3-. What is the likely cause of this patient's abnormal lab values?
Panic attacks causing acute respiratory alkalosis
A effects of both respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis are especially serious in cases of ________.
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