34 terms

A&P Exam I

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receptors
nerve cells that detect conditions in the environment and respond to stimuli
sodium
the most common cause of depolarization
calcium and sodium/potassium
the pumps found in the plasma membrane of a neauron
sodium and chloride
found in higher concentrations outside the neuron
potassium and organic anions
found in higher concentrations inside the neuron
effectors
cause responses that alter conditions in the internal environment in muscles and glands
central nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord
somatic sensory
sensory input that is consciously perceived from receptors
visceral sensory
sensory input that is not consciously perceived from blood vessels and internal organs
somatic motor
motor output that is consciously or voluntarily controlled; effector is skeletal muscle
autonomic motor
"involuntary" nervous system: innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
nerves
bundles of axons coated in myelin that travel together through the body
ganglia
clusters of nerve cell bodies that coordinate incoming and outgoing nerve signals
sensory nervous system
the system of nerves that carries information from the body's receptors to the CNS
motor nervous system
the system of nerves that carries information from the CNS to the body's effectors
neurons
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
soma
cell body of a neuron
perikaryon
cytoplasm of a nerve cell
chromatophilic substance
membranous sacs in the cytoplasm of nerve cells that have ribosomes attached to their surfaces
nissl bodies
Rough endoplasmic reticulum in neuron
dendrites
branching extensions of neurons that receive messages from neighboring neurons
axon
long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
axon hillock
triangular region where the axon joins the cell body
axoplasm
cytoplasm of the axon
axolemma
plasma membrane of the axon
axon collateral
a branch of an axon that also ends in terminals and innervates other cells
telodendria
synaptic knobs
synaptic vesicles
Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain neurotransmitters
multipolar
bipolar
unipolar