relief sculpture in which the figures project slightly from the background
a member of a group of people who submit by hunting, fishing, or foraging in the wild
to cut into, cut marks, engraving
a horizontal architectural member supporting the weight above an opening, as a window or a door
a stone of great size, especially in ancient construction work
made of only one stone, one piece
the lightest areas of the art subject appear darkest and the darkest appear lightest, reversed print
relating to or characteristic of the last phase of the stone age, marked by the domestication of animals, development of agriculture, and the manufacture of pottery and textiles, Middle East, 9000-8000
relating to or characteristic of the cultures of the early phase of the Stone Age, appeared first in Africa, stone told, engraving of bone and stone, sculpted figures 2,000,000 bc - 10,000bc
upright support piece to a structure
a picture or representation of the side view of the head
an established or prescribed procedure for a religious or other rite
a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds using magic to cure illness, foretell future, control spiritual forces, etc.
poetical composition intended for singing for rituals
upright stone slab or pillar bearing an inscription or design and serving as a monument, marker, or the like
to design in or cause to conform to a particular style, as of representation or treatment of art
taking things away
a prehistoric structure consisting of two upright stones supporting a horizontal stone
a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally
a large hypostyle hall
the sun which was the deity of a monotheistic cult under Pharaoh Akehenaten
Ben - Ben
platform to set items of worship on
plan incorporates two or more angular changes of direction, characteristic of Sumerian architecture
upper end of a column
major enclosed chamber of a classical temple
a portion of an interior rising above adjacent rooftops and having windows admitting daylight to the interior
a series of regularly spaced columns supporting an entablature and usually one sides of a roof
upright support of a building and decorative pillar
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.
a granular igneous rock, very hard
Hierarchy of Scale
a system of representation that expresses a person's importance by the size of his or her representation in a work of art
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
a large room with columns, a hall with a roof supported by columns
blue, a rock not a mineral, composed of lazurite/calcite/pyrite/sodalite, blue mixed with white and brassy speckles, greasy luster, occurs in limestones, often dyed blue
an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof
in Egyptian architecture, temple erected for the worship of a deceased pharaoh
A solid shape with a polygon as a base and triangular faces that come to a point (vertex or apex)
Horizontal band sculpted or painting decoration
A mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human.
A gift of gratitude or an offering made to a deity; often in the form of a small statuette. leave in a church
Greek for "high city". fortified part of an ancient Greek City, usually on a hill, The chief temples of the city were located here.
a public open space used for assemblies and markets
a main beam resting across the tops of columns, specifically the lower third entablature
Goddess of war and wisdom
an established set of principles or code of laws, often religious in nature
a female figure that functions as a supporting column
A style of Greek sculpture where people are depicted standing and leaning so that the person's weight is being put on one side. People are depicted with their bodies curved like an "S"
This style of column features simple, heavy columns without bases.
A painting technique in which pigment is mixed with wax and applied to the surface while hot.
a horizontal, continuous lintel on a classical building supported by columns or a wall, comprising the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
ornamental horizontal band on a wall
theme recurrent in Bible and Mythology of humans fighting giants
One of the three main orders of classical architecture, characterized by two opposed volutes in the capital
(maiden) refers to statues depicting female figures, always of a young age, which were created during the Archaic period (600 - 480 BCE) either as votive or commemorative statues.
Greek word for "male youth." An Archaic Greek statue of a standing, nude youth.
a large Greek bowl used for mixing water and wine
Lost Wax Process
bronze hollow casting
panel between the triglyphs in a Doric frieze, often sculpted in relief
Goddess of victory
A real event which took place every four years where Athenians gathered in the agora (market place) and, among other things, carried a robe to the statue of Athena
triangular gable on a roof or facade
simple long woolen belted garment worn by ancient Greek women (on Athena)
a single row of columns on all sides Describes a building that has a peristyle around its exterior
Row of columns around a building or court
parts of column, which rests upon the base, is a long, narrow, vertical cylinder that in some orders is articulated with fluting (vertical grooves).
is the top step of the crepidoma, the stepped platform upon which colonnades of temple columns are placed (it is the floor of the temple).
a circular building with a conical or vaulted roof and with or without a peristyle, or surrounding colonnade.
A projecting grooved element alternating with a metope on a Greek temple
a spiral, scroll-like ornament that forms the basis of the Ionic order, found in the capital of the Ionic column
King of the gods
a large and elaborate cemetery belonging to an ancient city; a historic or prehistoric burial ground
fine plaster or cement used to coat or decorate walls
Hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material. It may be glazed or painted.
a dining table with couches along three sides in ancient Rome
a porous limestone formed from calcium carbonate
Tumulus (Pl. Tumili)
a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans
A classical order similar to Roman Doric but having columns with an unfluted shaft and a simplified base, capital, and entablature
carefully cut and grooved stones that support a building without the use of concrete or other kinds of masonry
open central court, from which the enclosed rooms led off, in the type of large ancient Roman house known as a domus
a Roman building used for public administration
a series of sunken panels in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault.
Columns in which a concrete core is reinforced with a steel or cast-iron core designed to support a part of load
illustrates multiple scenes of a narrative within a single frame
a vault, having a circular plan and usually in the form of a portion of a sphere, so constructed as to exert an equal thrust in all directions
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
A Roman public meeting place
painting on wet plaster (usually fresh)
a rectangular basin in a Roman house that is placed in the open-air atrium in order to collect rainwater
the round central opening of a dome
An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
An upright support, generally square, rectangular, or composite
the space between a curved figure and a rectangular boundary
a large monument in the shape of an arch that celebrates a leader or a military victory
an arched brick or stone ceiling or roof
continuation of the aisled spaces on either side of the nave (central part of the church) around the apse
A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church.
A large rectangular building. Often built with a clerestory, side aisles separated from the center nave by colonnades, and an apse at one of both ends.
underground burial place
a building in which the parts of the structure are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center (i.e. Pantheon)
a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials, with hand-written contents.
Might be referring to a cubiculum - small room
Four books in the New Testament that tell the story of Christ's life and teachings
a crescent-shaped space, sometimes over a doorway, that contains sculpture or painting
the portico of an ancient church
the central area of a church
A figure with its hands raised in prayer
The part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave at a right angle.
a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity and certain Eastern Catholic churches
a screen decorated with icons that divides the sanctuary of a church from other areas
Art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
An inverted, concave, triangular piece of masonry serving as the transition from a square support system to the circular base of a dome.
base of a dome that makes a transition from the round dome to a flat wall
is a title of Mary, mother of Jesus
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
A Muslim place of worship
Founder of Islam
The sacred text of Islam
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
5 Pillars of Faith
1. repeated expressions of Creed 2. frequent prayer (5 times per day), 3. month of daytime fasting (Ramadan), 4. alms-giving, 5. pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) (Islam religion)
(Islam) a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca
a leader of prayer in a mosque
This wall in a mosque always faces Mecca.
A distinctive feature of mosque architecture, a tower from which the faithful are called to worship.
intertwined patterns, an ornament or style that employs flower, foliage, or fruit and sometimes and figural outlines to produce an intricate pattern of interlaced lines.
The art of fine handwriting
created when a shape is repeated over and over again covering a plane without any gaps or overlaps
Decorative enamelwork in which metal filaments are fused to the surface of an object to outline a design that is filled in with enamel paste
quadrilateral enclosure surrounded by covered walkways, and usually attached to a monastic or cathedral church
a brooch or pin for fastening garments
the site of two 6th- and early 7th-century cemeteries. One contained an undisturbed ship burial, including a wealth of Anglo-Saxon artefacts of outstanding art-historical and archaeological significance
Alternating support system
The use of alternating wall support in the nave, usually piers and columns. archivolt. the continuous molding framing an arch, Especially gothic
succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides.
the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment
A Christian church building in which a bishop has his official seat
a clustered column or pier which consists of a centre mass or newel, to which engaged or semi-detached shafts have been attached
a vertical side member of a doorframe, window frame, or lining.
when Christ comes the second time to judge the living and the dead
(n.) a door or entrance, especially one that is large and imposing
Series of chapels arranged around an ambulatory in the apse of a cathedral for relics
A container where religious relics are stored or displayed (especially relics of saints)
edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns
In this type of vaulting, one bay of quadripartite vaulting is divided transversely into two parts so that each bay has six compartments; this is a rib vault with six panels
tapestry vs. Embroidery
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom Embroidery is defined as the art of decorating fabrics using a needle and thread, or cloth that has been embroidered
an arch which crosses from one side of the nave to the other side at a 90 degree angle
the central pillar or mullion supporting the tympanum of a large doorway, commonly found in medieval buildings
The basically semicircular area enclosed by the arch above the lintel of an arched entranceway
one of the wedge-shaped pieces forming an arch or vault
the area of a church or cathedral that provides seating for the clergy and church choir
an arched stone support on the outside of buildings, which allows builders to construct higher walls
a Jewish text that sets forth the order of the Passover Seder
a Bible in which the Old and New Testament stories are paralleled with one another in illustrations, text, and commentary
architectural arch composed of two ogees, ogee = a double curve "S" formed by concaved and conveyed lines
A painting, drawing, or sculpture of Mary, the Mother of Jesus, holding the dead body of Jesus. The word means "pity" in Italian.
an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret
a circular window with stained glass and stone tracery used on the facades and the ends of the transepts in Gothic cathedrals
a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building
the stonework elements that support the glass in a Gothic window
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body
the Byzantine or Greek mode of painting adopted by Italian artists in the Proto-Renaissance era. The characteristics of Maniera Greca include bright gliding colors and striations that denote folds in the fabric.
fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with egg yolk
1300's, or 14th century Italian art
a painted or sculpted panel set on an altar of a church
an artistic carving; a form of printing
Art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints
paint made of pigment floating in oil, drys slower
A three-paneled painting or altarpiece.
A print created from an incised piece of wood
Invented in the sixteeth century, the camera obscura is made out of an arrangement of lenses and mirrors in a box (or room) that is darkened. When looking through the lens of a 'camera obscura', the view presented is actually reflected through the mirrors onto the paper or cloth and allows the artist to draw by tracing the outline. This forerunner of the modern camera was a tool for recording an optically accurate image, often of topographical detail (Canaletto used one to study his vedute prior to painting).
Creating the illusion of depth of space by fading colors and eliminating detail in objects that are further away.
a system of creating an illusion of depth on a flat surface. All parallel lines (orthogonals) in a painting or drawing using this system converge in a single vanishing point on the composition's horizon line.
perspective lines, drawn diagonally along parallel lines that meet at a so-called "vanishing point."
an upright architectural member that is rectangular in plan and is structurally a pier but architecturally treated as a column and that usually projects a third of its width or less from the wall.
the 15th century especially with reference to Italian literature and art.
uses realistic imagery to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects exist in three dimensions.
full scale predatory drawing
a surface you paint on that is often made from tightly stretched unbleached cloth or a closely woven fabric that is often used to make boat sail, purses and upholstery
or marriage chest is a rich and showy Italian type of chest, which may be inlaid or carved, prepared with gesso ground then painted and gilded
the dramatic effect of contrasting areas of light and dark in an artwork
Italian renaissance of the 16th century
placement of human remains in a crypt or vault
the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes.
nude corner figures on the Sistine Chapel ceiling
A term describing "poetic" art, notably Venetian Renaissance paintings, which emphasizes the lyrical and sensual.
Italian for "smoky", technique used to blend details to look more realistic
A female prophet or fortune-teller.
drawing or painting of an arrangement of inanimate objects
an effect or expression of powerful will and immense angry force
Drawings and paintings which appear distorted and almost unrecognizable to the unaided eye until viewed from a special angle.
Di Sotto In Su
, which means "seen from below" or "from below, upward" in Italian
thick application of paint (usually oil) that makes no attempt to look smooth, textured
painting contains collections of objects symbolic of the inevitability of death
outdoor entertainment of aristocracy
incorporated visual metaphors in order to suggest noble qualities., High Renaissance
any of various pale or light colors.
an informal meeting place where ideas are exchanged
a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, actually more often print, of a cityscape or some other vista
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