205 terms

APAH Midterm Vocab

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Anthropomorphic
exhibit human qualities on an animal
Bas Relief
relief sculpture in which the figures project slightly from the background
counter lines
outside lines
hunter-gatherer
a member of a group of people who submit by hunting, fishing, or foraging in the wild
incise
to cut into, cut marks, engraving
lintel
a horizontal architectural member supporting the weight above an opening, as a window or a door
megalith
a stone of great size, especially in ancient construction work
monolithic
made of only one stone, one piece
negative prints
the lightest areas of the art subject appear darkest and the darkest appear lightest, reversed print
neolithic
relating to or characteristic of the last phase of the stone age, marked by the domestication of animals, development of agriculture, and the manufacture of pottery and textiles, Middle East, 9000-8000
Paleolithic
relating to or characteristic of the cultures of the early phase of the Stone Age, appeared first in Africa, stone told, engraving of bone and stone, sculpted figures 2,000,000 bc - 10,000bc
post
upright support piece to a structure
profile
a picture or representation of the side view of the head
ritual
an established or prescribed procedure for a religious or other rite
shaman
a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds using magic to cure illness, foretell future, control spiritual forces, etc.
song
poetical composition intended for singing for rituals
stele
upright stone slab or pillar bearing an inscription or design and serving as a monument, marker, or the like
stylized
to design in or cause to conform to a particular style, as of representation or treatment of art
subtractive
taking things away
trilithon
a prehistoric structure consisting of two upright stones supporting a horizontal stone
twisted perspective
a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally
Amen- Re
...
Apadana
a large hypostyle hall
aton
the sun which was the deity of a monotheistic cult under Pharaoh Akehenaten
Ben - Ben
platform to set items of worship on
Bent Axis
plan incorporates two or more angular changes of direction, characteristic of Sumerian architecture
Capital
upper end of a column
cella
major enclosed chamber of a classical temple
clerestory
a portion of an interior rising above adjacent rooftops and having windows admitting daylight to the interior
colonnades
a series of regularly spaced columns supporting an entablature and usually one sides of a roof
column
upright support of a building and decorative pillar
cuneiform
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.
diorite
a granular igneous rock, very hard
Hierarchy of Scale
a system of representation that expresses a person's importance by the size of his or her representation in a work of art
Hieroglyphics
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Hypostyle Hall
a large room with columns,
a hall with a roof supported by columns
Lapiz Lazuli
blue, a rock not a mineral, composed of lazurite/calcite/pyrite/sodalite, blue mixed with white and brassy speckles, greasy luster, occurs in limestones, often dyed blue
Mastaba
an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof
mortuary temple
in Egyptian architecture, temple erected for the worship of a deceased pharaoh
pyramid
A solid shape with a polygon as a base and triangular faces that come to a point (vertex or apex)
registers/ friezes
Horizontal band sculpted or painting decoration
sphinx
A mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human.
votive offering
A gift of gratitude or an offering made to a deity; often in the form of a small statuette. leave in a church
acropolis
Greek for "high city". fortified part of an ancient Greek City, usually on a hill, The chief temples of the city were located here.
agora
a public open space used for assemblies and markets
architrave
a main beam resting across the tops of columns, specifically the lower third entablature
athena
Goddess of war and wisdom
Canon
an established set of principles or code of laws, often religious in nature
Caryatid
a female figure that functions as a supporting column
chiastic
...
contrapposto
A style of Greek sculpture where people are depicted standing and leaning so that the person's weight is being put on one side. People are depicted with their bodies curved like an "S"
doric
This style of column features simple, heavy columns without bases.
Encaustic
A painting technique in which pigment is mixed with wax and applied to the surface while hot.
Entablature
a horizontal, continuous lintel on a classical building supported by columns or a wall, comprising the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Frieze
ornamental horizontal band on a wall
Gigantomachy
theme recurrent in Bible and Mythology of humans fighting giants
Ionic
One of the three main orders of classical architecture, characterized by two opposed volutes in the capital
Kore
(maiden) refers to statues depicting female figures, always of a young age, which were created during the Archaic period (600 - 480 BCE) either as votive or commemorative statues.
Kouros
Greek word for "male youth." An Archaic Greek statue of a standing, nude youth.
Krater
a large Greek bowl used for mixing water and wine
Lost Wax Process
bronze hollow casting
Metope
panel between the triglyphs in a Doric frieze, often sculpted in relief
Nike
Goddess of victory
Panathenaic Procession
A real event which took place every four years where Athenians gathered in the agora (market place) and, among other things, carried a robe to the statue of Athena
Pediment
triangular gable on a roof or facade
peplos
simple long woolen belted garment worn by ancient Greek women (on Athena)
peripteral
a single row of columns on all sides
Describes a building that has a peristyle around its exterior
peristyle
Row of columns around a building or court
shaft
parts of column, which rests upon the base, is a long, narrow, vertical cylinder that in some orders is articulated with fluting (vertical grooves).
stylobate
is the top step of the crepidoma, the stepped platform upon which colonnades of temple columns are placed (it is the floor of the temple).
tholos
a circular building with a conical or vaulted roof and with or without a peristyle, or surrounding colonnade.
Triglyph
A projecting grooved element alternating with a metope on a Greek temple
volute
a spiral, scroll-like ornament that forms the basis of the Ionic order, found in the capital of the Ionic column
Zeus
King of the gods
Necropolis
a large and elaborate cemetery belonging to an ancient city; a historic or prehistoric burial ground
Stucco
fine plaster or cement used to coat or decorate walls
Terracotta
Hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material. It may be glazed or painted.
Triclinium
a dining table with couches along three sides in ancient Rome
Tufa
a porous limestone formed from calcium carbonate
Tumulus (Pl. Tumili)
a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans
Tuscan Order
A classical order similar to Roman Doric but having columns with an unfluted shaft and a simplified base, capital, and entablature
Ashlar Masonry
carefully cut and grooved stones that support a building without the use of concrete or other kinds of masonry
Atrium (Atria)
open central court, from which the enclosed rooms led off, in the type of large ancient Roman house known as a domus
Basilica
a Roman building used for public administration
Coffer
a series of sunken panels in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault.
Composite column
Columns in which a concrete core is reinforced with a steel or cast-iron core designed to support a part of load
Continuous narrative
illustrates multiple scenes of a narrative within a single frame
dome
a vault, having a circular plan and usually in the form of a portion of a sphere, so constructed as to exert an equal thrust in all directions
foreshortening
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
forum
A Roman public meeting place
fresco
painting on wet plaster (usually fresh)
impluvium
a rectangular basin in a Roman house that is placed in the open-air atrium in order to collect rainwater
oculus
the round central opening of a dome
perspective
An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
pier
An upright support, generally square, rectangular, or composite
spandrel
the space between a curved figure and a rectangular boundary
triumphal arch
a large monument in the shape of an arch that celebrates a leader or a military victory
vault
an arched brick or stone ceiling or roof
verismo
realism
Ambulatory
continuation of the aisled spaces on either side of the nave (central part of the church) around the apse
apse
A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church.
Basilica Plan
A large rectangular building. Often built with a clerestory, side aisles separated from the center nave by colonnades, and an apse at one of both ends.
Catacomb
underground burial place
central plan
a building in which the parts of the structure are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center (i.e. Pantheon)
codex
a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials, with hand-written contents.
cubical
Might be referring to a cubiculum - small room
gospels
Four books in the New Testament that tell the story of Christ's life and teachings
lunette
a crescent-shaped space, sometimes over a doorway, that contains sculpture or painting
narthex
the portico of an ancient church
nave
the central area of a church
orant figure
A figure with its hands raised in prayer
transept
The part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave at a right angle.
icon
a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity and certain Eastern Catholic churches
Iconostasis
a screen decorated with icons that divides the sanctuary of a church from other areas
mosaic
Art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
pendentive
An inverted, concave, triangular piece of masonry serving as the transition from a square support system to the circular base of a dome.
Squinch
base of a dome that makes a transition from the round dome to a flat wall
Theotokos
is a title of Mary, mother of Jesus
Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Mosque
A Muslim place of worship
Muhammad
Founder of Islam
Qur'an (Koran)
The sacred text of Islam
muqarnas
stallactite stucco
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
5 Pillars of Faith
1. repeated expressions of Creed 2. frequent prayer (5 times per day), 3. month of daytime fasting (Ramadan), 4. alms-giving, 5. pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) (Islam religion)
Mihrab
(Islam) a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca
Imam
a leader of prayer in a mosque
Qibla
This wall in a mosque always faces Mecca.
minaret
A distinctive feature of mosque architecture, a tower from which the faithful are called to worship.
arabesque
intertwined patterns, an ornament or style that employs flower, foliage, or fruit and sometimes and figural outlines to produce an intricate pattern of interlaced lines.
calligraphy
The art of fine handwriting
tessellation
created when a shape is repeated over and over again covering a plane without any gaps or overlaps
Cloisonne
Decorative enamelwork in which metal filaments are fused to the surface of an object to outline a design that is filled in with enamel paste
cloister
quadrilateral enclosure surrounded by covered walkways, and usually attached to a monastic or cathedral church
fibula
a brooch or pin for fastening garments
Sutton Hoo
the site of two 6th- and early 7th-century cemeteries. One contained an undisturbed ship burial, including a wealth of Anglo-Saxon artefacts of outstanding art-historical and archaeological significance
Alternating support system
The use of alternating wall support in the nave, usually piers and columns. archivolt. the continuous molding framing an arch, Especially gothic
arcade
succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides.
bay
the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment
cathedral
A Christian church building in which a bishop has his official seat
compound pier
a clustered column or pier which consists of a centre mass or newel, to which engaged or semi-detached shafts have been attached
Jamb
a vertical side member of a doorframe, window frame, or lining.
Last Judgement
when Christ comes the second time to judge the living and the dead
Portal
(n.) a door or entrance, especially one that is large and imposing
radiating chapel
Series of chapels arranged around an ambulatory in the apse of a cathedral for relics
reliquary
A container where religious relics are stored or displayed (especially relics of saints)
rib vault
edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns
Sexpartite vault
In this type of vaulting, one bay of quadripartite vaulting is divided transversely into two parts so that each bay has six compartments; this is a rib vault with six panels
tapestry vs. Embroidery
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom
Embroidery is defined as the art of decorating fabrics using a needle and thread, or cloth that has been embroidered
transverse arch
an arch which crosses from one side of the nave to the other side at a 90 degree angle
trumeau
the central pillar or mullion supporting the tympanum of a large doorway, commonly found in medieval buildings
tympanum
The basically semicircular area enclosed by the arch above the lintel of an arched entranceway
Voussoir
one of the wedge-shaped pieces forming an arch or vault
choir
the area of a church or cathedral that provides seating for the clergy and church choir
flying buttress
an arched stone support on the outside of buildings, which allows builders to construct higher walls
Haggadah
a Jewish text that sets forth the order of the Passover Seder
Moralized Bible
a Bible in which the Old and New Testament stories are paralleled with one another in illustrations, text, and commentary
Ogee Arch
architectural arch composed of two ogees, ogee = a double curve "S" formed by concaved and conveyed lines
Pieta
A painting, drawing, or sculpture of Mary, the Mother of Jesus, holding the dead body of Jesus. The word means "pity" in Italian.
Pinnacle
an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret
Rose Window
a circular window with stained glass and stone tracery used on the facades and the ends of the transepts in Gothic cathedrals
spire
a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building
Tracery
the stonework elements that support the glass in a Gothic window
Campanile
bell tower
Humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Lamentation
After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body
Maniera Greca
the Byzantine or Greek mode of painting adopted by Italian artists in the Proto-Renaissance era. The characteristics of Maniera Greca include bright gliding colors and striations that denote folds in the fabric.
tempera
fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with egg yolk
trecento
1300's, or 14th century Italian art
altarpiece
a painted or sculpted panel set on an altar of a church
engraving
an artistic carving; a form of printing
etching
Art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints
oil paint
paint made of pigment floating in oil, drys slower
polyptych
many-paneled altarpiece
triptych
A three-paneled painting or altarpiece.
woodcut
A print created from an incised piece of wood
camera obscura
Invented in the sixteeth century, the camera obscura is made out of an arrangement of lenses and mirrors in a box (or room) that is darkened. When looking through the lens of a 'camera obscura', the view presented is actually reflected through the mirrors onto the paper or cloth and allows the artist to draw by tracing the outline. This forerunner of the modern camera was a tool for recording an optically accurate image, often of topographical detail (Canaletto used one to study his vedute prior to painting).
atmospheric perspective
Creating the illusion of depth of space by fading colors and eliminating detail in objects that are further away.
linear perspective
a system of creating an illusion of depth on a flat surface. All parallel lines (orthogonals) in a painting or drawing using this system converge in a single vanishing point on the composition's horizon line.
orthogonal
perspective lines, drawn diagonally along parallel lines that meet at a so-called "vanishing point."
pilaster
an upright architectural member that is rectangular in plan and is structurally a pier but architecturally treated as a column and that usually projects a third of its width or less from the wall.
Quattrocento
the 15th century especially with reference to Italian literature and art.
Trompe L'oeil
uses realistic imagery to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects exist in three dimensions.
cartoon
full scale predatory drawing
canvas
a surface you paint on that is often made from tightly stretched unbleached cloth or a closely woven fabric that is often used to make boat sail, purses and upholstery
cassone
or marriage chest is a rich and showy Italian type of chest, which may be inlaid or carved, prepared with gesso ground then painted and gilded
Chiaroscuro
the dramatic effect of contrasting areas of light and dark in an artwork
Cinquecento
Italian renaissance of the 16th century
Entombment
placement of human remains in a crypt or vault
Genre Painting
the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes.
Ignudi
nude corner figures on the Sistine Chapel ceiling
poesia
A term describing "poetic" art, notably Venetian Renaissance paintings, which emphasizes the lyrical and sensual.
sfumato
Italian for "smoky", technique used to blend details to look more realistic
Sibyl
A female prophet or fortune-teller.
still life
drawing or painting of an arrangement of inanimate objects
terribilita
an effect or expression of powerful will and immense angry force
anamorphic
Drawings and paintings which appear distorted and almost unrecognizable to the unaided eye until viewed from a special angle.
Di Sotto In Su
, which means "seen from below" or "from below, upward" in Italian
Impasto
thick application of paint (usually oil) that makes no attempt to look smooth, textured
Vanitas
painting contains collections of objects symbolic of the inevitability of death
Fete Galante
outdoor entertainment of aristocracy
Grand Portraiture
incorporated visual metaphors in order to suggest noble qualities., High Renaissance
Pastel
any of various pale or light colors.
Salon
an informal meeting place where ideas are exchanged
Veduta
a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, actually more often print, of a cityscape or some other vista

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