There are seven species of sea turtles. All are in danger of becoming extinct, mostly due to ____.
human impacts on their environment taking place during the last 100 years
The excessive turbidity, or cloudiness, of Lake Wingra in Madison, Wisconsin, was caused by the introduction of which of the following?
Ocean pollution from plastic items dumped from ships and garbage barges, and left as litter on beaches, kills up to ____ sea birds each year.
Projected climate change threatens aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services, partly by contributing to ____.
rising sea levels
Warmer and more acidic ocean water is stressing ____, the foundation of the marine food web.
A concentration of a particular wild aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water is called a ____.
A fishing method called, ____ fishing, is used to catch surface-dwelling species such as tuna, mackerel, anchovies, and herring, which tend to feed in schools near the surface or in shallow areas.
Which of the following is defined as the area of ocean needed to sustain the fish consumption of an average person, a nation, or the world?
All the nations of the world are overfishing the world's global oceans, taking _____ more than the sustainable yield of fish.
When it appears that it is no longer profitable to continue fishing as a result of overfishing, the fish populations are said to be ____.
One result of the increasingly efficient global hunt for fish is that larger individuals of commercially valuable wild species are ____.
As large species of fish are overfished, the fishing industry is shifting to smaller marine species and about 90% of this catch is converted to fishmeal and fish oil, most of which is ____.
fed to farmed fish
In recent years, jellyfish blooms have ____.
been rising in numbers
Which term describes species that play crucial roles in helping to keep their ecosystems functioning?
For every shark that injures or kills a person, people kill about ____ sharks.
Scientists are now cataloging species in the deepest part of the ocean by using ____.
remotely operated deep-sea vehicles
HIPPCO is an acronym that aids in remembering ____.
threats to the world's biodiversity
Sea-bottom habitats are being threatened by ____.
dredging operations and trawlers
Ocean acidification is defined as rising levels of acid in ocean waters due to the ocean's absorption of ____ from the atmosphere.
CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Bioinvaders can be blamed for ____ of all fish extinctions in the U.S. since 1900 and have caused huge economic losses.
One invader that particularly worries scientists and fishers on the east coast of North America is a species of ____ native to the western Pacific Ocean.
In 2010, the UN indicated that what percentage of the world's people are living along or near the ocean, mostly in large coastal cities?
The first letter "P" in the acronym HIPPCO stands for ____.
The greatest marine biodiversity is located ____.
in coral reefs
What percentage of the world's oceans is fully protected, and closed to fishing and other harmful human activities?
Many marine scientists suggest we need at least ____% of the world's oceans fully protected as marine reserves.
In 2011, an international panel of scientists concluded that because of a combination of habitat loss, overfishing, pollution, and ocean acidification, marine life is poised to enter a new period of ____.
What is CITES?
a treaty banning trade in endangered species
By law, a country's offshore fishing zone extends to ____ kilometers from its shores.
Which U.S. state is leading the way in establishing marine protected areas where fishing will be banned or strictly limited?
Many scientists and policy makers are suggesting an ecosystem approach to sustain aquatic systems. The cornerstone of this would include establishment of fully protected ____.
Some coastal fishing communities have developed allotment and enforcement systems for controlling fish catches in which each fisher gets a share of the total allowable catch. These systems help sustain fisheries and jobs and are called ____.
To encourage more responsible fishing practices, an important component of sustaining aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services is bottom-up pressure from consumers demanding ____.
The traditional approach to estimating fish populations is the ____.
maximum sustained yield
The newer approach to estimating fish populations, one which takes into account interactions between species and has more room for error, is ____.
optimum sustained yield
Despite their ecological value, the United States has lost more than ____ of its coastal and inland wetlands since 1900.
The purpose of mitigation banking is to ____.
allow the destruction of wetlands if an equal wetland is created elsewhere
What species is one of the biggest threats to the Great Lakes?
The Columbia River dam system has benefited many people, but it has ____.
sharply reduced populations of wild salmon
In order to protect a stream or lake from excessive inputs of nutrients and pollutants, we must protect its ____.
In 1968, the U.S. Congress passed the ____ to establish protection of rivers with outstanding wildlife, geological, scenic, recreational, historical, or cultural values.
National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
Which activity is least likely to be involved with the sustainable management of freshwater fisheries?
facilitating the introduction of commercially important nonnative species
What is a major threat to the biodiversity and ecological function of the Great Lakes?
invasive nonnative species
What is not one of the ecosystem services of rivers?
remove silt that accumulates in deltas
Biologist E. O. Wilson proposed a list of priorities for protecting aquatic biodiversity. What is one of those priorities?
Identify and preserve the world's aquatic biodiversity hot spots.
There is growing evidence that the current harmful effects of human activities on aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services could be reversed over the next ____.
The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has several goals. Which goal below is not one of them?
Build a series of massive dams to stop water leaving the Everglades.
In 1947, the U.S. government established the Everglades National Park to help preserve the wilderness of this system. Why didn't this protection effort work?
Massive water distribution and land development north of the Everglades.
Protecting ____ and restoring them in areas where they have been destroyed are important ways to reduce the impacts of rising sea levels and storm surges, because these can slow storm-driven waves.
Sylvia Earle is leading a campaign called Mission Blue to finance research and to ignite public support for a global network of marine protected areas, which she dubs ____.