AP Comp Gov't Midterm Review
Terms in this set (86)
reference to the leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for a country.
Countries that have democratic procedures in place but have significant restrictions on them
When every dispute aligns the same groups against each other. Likely to be explosive.
divide society into many potential groups that may conflict on one issue but cooperate on another.
concentrates all policymaking powers in one central geographic place, and the central government is responsible for most policy areas. Examples: China, Iran, UK
divides power between the central government and sub-units, and regional bodies have significant powers, such as taxation, lawmaking, and keeping order.
Examples: Russia, Mexico and Nigeria
the tendency to decentralize decision making to regional governments
the head of state
symbolizes and represents the people, both nationally and internationally, and may or may not have any real policymaking power.
head of government
deals with everyday tasks of running the state, and usually directs the activities of members of the executive branch.
two houses in the legislature
one house in the legislature
groups that connect the government to its citizens, such as political parties, interest groups, and print and electronic media
divide their constituencies into single-member districts→ in which candidates compete for a single representative's seat. the winner does not need a majority to win, but simply must get more votes than anyone else.
voters cast their ballots for a party rather than for a candidate, and the percentage of votes a party receives determines how many seats the party will gain in the legislature
combines first-past-the-post and proportional representation
Used by Germany, Mexico, and Russia (until 2007)
organizations of like-minded people whose main political goal is to influence and shape public policy
the state determines which groups are brought in
Constitution of the Crown
Instead, the "constitution" has evolved over time, with important documents, common law, and customs combining to form what is often called the
Legal system based on local customs and precedent rather than formal legal code.
the feeling of separation from the continent of Europe.
the duty of the upper classes to take responsibility for the welfare of the lower classes.
change occurring over time rather than all at once
joining of political parties to win the war
provided for a social insurance program that made all citizens eligible for health, unemployment, pension, and other benefits
Margaret Thatcher blamed the weak economy on the social policies set in place by the gov't after WWII. She privatized business and industry, cut back on social and welfare programs, strengthened national defense, got tough with labor unions, and returned to market force controls on the economy.
a centrist alternative to the old Labour party on the left and Conservative party on the right
Most important portal to the elite classes
prime minister and cabinet member are actually members of the legislature.
no party gained a majority and a coalition government formed.
policy advisory boards appointed by the government
the leaders of the majority party elected by the people take "collective responsibility" for making policy for the country
less influential MPs
Vote of no confidence
a vote on a key issue, that the majority party wants to avoid.
the principle that Parliament's decisions are final.
House of Lords
less influential house in UK parliament
based on a comprehensive system r written rules of law divided into commercial, civil, and criminal codes
citizens vote for legislative representatives as well as for executive branch leaders, and the two branches function as separation of powers
a forced takeover of the government
the belief that tradition should determine who should rule and how
based on the dynamic personality of an individual leader or a small group
based on a system of well-established laws and procedures; highly institutionalized, anchored by strong institutions (ex. legislatures, executives, and/or judiciaries) and is carried over through generations of leaders
government ruled strictly by religion.
belief that religion and government should be separated.
led by Muhammad Mosaddeq, Advocated nationalizing the British-owned company that monopolized Iran's oil business, and he wanted to take the armed forces out from under the shah's control. Career cut short when the British struck back by co-sponsoring with the US an overthrow of Mosaddeq, and restoring the shah to full power again.
Rentier economy is heavily supported by state expenditure, while the state receives rent from other countries.
named to counter communist, or "red" influences) that focused in land reform, with the government buying land from large absentee owners and selling it to farmers at affordable prices.
Principle originally gave the senior clergy (including Khomeini) broad authority over the unfortunate people in the society, but Khomeini claimed that the true meaning of _________________ gives the clergy authority over the entire Shia community.
Assembly of Religious Experts
86-man house directly elected by the people every four years. Selects the supreme leader and has the right to dismiss him
Aimed to purify the country from not only the shah's regime, but also from secular values and behaviors, particularly those with western origins.
was a reformist who aimed to freeze in relations between Iran and the West, particularly US
Believed in a "dialogue among civilizations" that fostered positive relations with other countries. Under his presidency Iranians experienced the so-called "tehran spring"- a period of cautious political liberalization, with the loosening of free speech and press, a more open economy, and a friendlier stance towards the outside world
a conservative who cracked down on free speech.
a period of cautious political liberalization, with the loosening of free speech and press, a more open economy, and a friendlier stance towards the outside world
is seen as the imam of the whole community
he represents the pinnacle of theocratic principles of the state
The Guardian Council
consists of twelve male clerics. Six are appointed by the supreme leader, and the other six are nominated by the chief judge and approved by the Majles. Bills passed by the Majles are reviewed by the ________ to ensure that they conform to sharia. also has the power to decide who can compete in elections
The expediency council
created by Khomeini to referee disputes between the Guardian Council and the Majles, since the Guardian Council can overturn decisions and proposals for the law made by the Majles
semi-autonomous groups, but because they are run by people with strong connections to the government, these organizations are called
Islamic law, was built up over several centuries after the death of the religion's founded, Muhammad, in the 7th century
Has no sacred basis, but is instead a body of statutes made by legislative bodies
Statists vs. free-marketers
major cleavage on what time economy Iran should have
believe that the government should take an active role in controlling the economy- redistributing land and wealth, eliminating unemployment, financing social welfare programs, and placing price ceilings on consumer goods
want to remove price controls, lower business taxes, encourage private enterprise, and balance the budget
is the dilemma of how the country should be governed, or even if Nigeria should remain as one nation. Even though it has been independent since 1960, neither its citizens nor its leaders agree on the basics of who should rule and how.
the acceptance of a constitution as a guiding set of principles, has eluded Nigeria
Coup sparked the Igbo to fight for their land
is the practice of exchanging political and economic favors among patron and clients, and is almost always accompanied by corruption. In Nigeria, the president may grant is clients a portion of the oil revenues for support.
This area contains many smaller ethnic groups, and is characterized by a mix of both Muslims and Christians.
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People, MOSOP
founded by dissident Ken Saro-Wiwa in the 1990s works to apply national laws to secure financial benefits for the Ogoni in the Niger Delta and to hold foreign-operated oil companies to environmental standards
Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND)
which wants more oil money going to the people of the Delta states. They have chosen violent methods, such as kidnapping foreign workers, and others have joined in the mayhem, including gangs with no such communal goals.
economic structural adjustment
Babangida regime developed a program with the support of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The program sought to restructure and diversify the Nigerian economy so that it could decrease its dependence on oil.
the largest ethnic group that lives in north west Muslim Nigeria
the largest ethnic group that lives in north west Muslim Nigeria
an ethnic group of Nigeria that lived in the southeast region for thousands of years. Known for metalworking, weaving, and carving
Led a fight for independence for Biafra during the Biafra Civil War 1967-1970.
A northerner who ruled with authoritarian military rule and murdered critics of his regime, including Ken Saro-Wiwa, a writer and environmental activist.
An ethnic Muslim who dealt with Nigeria's economic crisis through structural adjustment programs funded by the IMF and World Bank.
1st president of the 4th Republic 1999-2007, he is a Christian Yoruba, he was military dictator from 76-79, he is part of the Peoples Democratic Party(PDP), he was the first to voluntary step down to new democracy. He wanted Privatization, free market, and to fight corruption.
Writer and activist founder of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People. Executed by Abacha in 1995.
stipulated that in order for candidates to run, they needed at least 5% of votes in ⅔ of states during local elections
Each ethnic group is allotted a certain portion of federal positions based on its regional population. The presidential formula (25%) is an example; it is a more broad concept to embrace diversity.
distribution of revenue from resources; true meaning you keep all the revenue for the resources found in your state
described a country with a rapidly increasing GNP in orderly transition from an authoritarian to a democratic government.
a blend of two peoples
a Mexican parish priest named __________ led a popular rebellion against Spanish rule in 1810. After 11 years of chaos, Mexico became independent in 1821. _________ was seen as a champion of the indigenous people of Mexico. He symbolizes the political rights of the peasantry
Constitution of 1917
It set up a structure for the democratic government--complete with three branches and competitive elections--but political assassinations continued into the 1920s. (Mexico)
a hierarchical network through which offices and other benefits were exchanged. Patron-clientelism
have produced goods primarily for consumers in the US, and a number of US companies have established plants in the zone to transform imported, duty - free components or raw materials into finished industrial products
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