86 terms

AP Human Geography

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location
how geographical position of people and things in Earth's surface affect what happens and why
location theory
an element of contemporary geography that seeks to answer questions like:why are villages, towns, and cities spaced the way they are?
human-environment interactions
how do the decisions of some affect not only other humans but the plant life and resources surrounding the action?
formal/uniform region
an area within which everyone shares one or more characteristics in common
functional/nodal region
an area organized around a node or focal point (think transportation or communications)
vernacular/perceptual region
an area that people believe exist as part of their cultural idenity
mental map
an internal representation if s portion of Earth's surface
culture
body of customsry beliefs, material traitsm and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people
cultural traits
the defining characteristics of a culture (technology like tools, architecture, farming method, clothing, or eating utensils) or ideology (religions, symbols, grave markers), sociology(forms of greeting)
core
centralized zone of concentration lf the "most pure" area that possess all of the cultural traits used to define the area
domain
an area in whuch culture is prominant
sphere
area where outer influence of culture such as an ethnicity
syncretism
when two cultures combine to make some hybrid result (Thai food b/c derived from Chinese soy based food and Indian curry)
circle map/proprotional symbol map
better for smaller populations like cities vs. globe
primary data
1st hand intervieeing and gathering info
secondary data
2nd hand info from other sites and resources like GPS
symbolization
symbols on map and colors that represent something specific
choropleth map
best for bigger areas like population globally
dot density map
best for small areas
isoline map
best fir temperature, climate, water levels, and resource map
categorization
grouping related mald together into categories
simplification
the removing of unneccessary info making the map less accruate but focused on only what is important
induction
when a map contains more information than given= infers data not given
GPS
global positioning satelite
house bubble
rapid increase in value if houses followed by decline rapidly
trans national companies
company that works across multiple countries
ecumene
area where humans live
four types of cultural diffusion
hierarchical, comtagious,stimulus, and relocation
hierarchical diffusion
where a prominent figure or elsewise influential entity (can be a company that has a large monopoly of a certain resource) starts a trend by endorsing something and others follow because of the person's prominence
contagious diffusion
where some trend spreads like it is contagious like a disease
relocation diffusion
where people move with idea or belief and spread this with them
resource
a substance in the environment that is useful for people, economically and technologically feasible tonaccess, and socially acceptable to use.
renweable resource
a resource that is produced more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
a nonrenewable resource
a resource produced in nature more slowly thannit is consumed by humans
sustainability
the use of Earth's renweable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that ensure resource availability in the future
three pillars sustainability rely on
environment, economy, and society
sense of place
feelings and emotions infused to a certain place
movement
the mobility of people, goods,and ideas across the surface of the planet
landscape
the material character of a race, the complex of natural features, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place a particular form
cultural landscape
visible imprint of human activity on the landscape
sequent occupance
sequential imprints of occupants whose impacts are layered one on top of the other
pull factors
things that make one want to move to a certain place
push factors
things that make one want to move away from a certain place
globalization
increaing interactions amongst all parts of the world
5 themes of human geography
location, human-environment interactions, region, place, movement, landscape
scale
large scale= zoomed in more vs. zoomed out more
place
a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
toponym
place name
site
physical character of a place(include climate, water sources, soil, vegetation,etc.)
situation
location of a place relative to other places
region
an area of Earth defined by one or more distinctive charcateristics
conservation
the sustainable use and management of Earth's natural resources to meet human needs such as food, medicine, and recreation
preservation
the maintence of resources in their present condition with as little human impact as possible
the economy pillar of sustainability
thebprice of a resource deoends in a society's technological ability to obtain it and to adapt it to that society's purposes
the society pillar of sustainability
society's values are the basis for choosing which resources to use
biotic
composed of living organisms
abiotic
comsed of nonliving organisms like trees, earth, etc.
atmosphere
a thin layer of gases surrounding earth
hydrosphere
all of the water on and near Earth's surface
lithosphere
Earth's crust and a portion of upper mantle directly below the crust
biosphere
all living organisms on Earth including animals and plants as well as microorganisms
climate
long-term average weather condition at a paeticular location
ecosystem
a group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which they interact
erosion
when the soil washes away in the rain or blows away in the wind. to avoid this, farmers should avoid steep slopes, plow less, and plant crops whose roots help bind the soil
what to do to avoid depletion of nutrients
farms can plant different crops each year so that the kand remains productive over the longhaul
cultural ecology
the geographic study of human-environment relationships
environmental determinism
the idea that the physical environment caused social development
possibilism
the idea that the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment ex= Netherlands who though their environment limits them, they found ways to have it benefit them by pushing forward ecofriendly technology like solar panels, etc.
polder
a piece of land that is created by draining water from an area
hearth
a place from which an innovation originates
stimulus diffusion
where someone alters something that failed to hit so that it is slightly different, but this time, the thing becomes popular.
connection
relationship between people and objects across bariers of space
pattern
geometric arrangemnt of object in space
GIS
geographic information system
remote sensing
getting info from space satelites or other long distance method
prime meridan
greenwich where 0 degrees and where GMT or UT universal time
latitude
think equator laying down and climb up stairs bur stairs themselves are down
longitude
goes up to 360 degrees and is upright 0 at Greenwich
paralel
line laying down paralel to the equator
robinson map
good because it shows accurately protrays the oceans, but the land appear smaller (distorted)
mercedan map
good because doesn't distort their shape, is rectangular, and it is consistent in its direction, but it is inaccurate because Greenwich is huge (distorted)
goode homosoline map
interrupted projection because it does splits the western and eastern hemisphere
dymaxion map
the odd on that does ot try to be geometric instead it focuses on how all humanity is interconnected
isopleth map
map that is choropleth mao but also has isoline lines to distinguish where the highest concentration of x,y,z
regions of culture: what people care about
Geographers study why the customary ideas,beliefs, and values of a people produce a distinctive culture in a particular place
Language
People communicate the cultural values they care about through language, and the words themselves tell something about where different cultural groups are located.
Religion
It's the principal system of attitudes, beliefs, and practices through which people worship in a formal, organized way
Ethnicity
Encompasses a group's language, religion, and other cultural values, as well as its physical traits
regions of culture: what they care for
Geographers divide the world into regions of developed and developing regions
Must share characteristics like capita income, literacy rates, TVs per capita, and hospital beds per capita
Possession of wealth and material goods higher in developed countries
Most people in developing countries work in agriculture whereas developed work through performing a service in exchange for a wage