Psychology Unit 1 Quiz terms

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Hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusion.
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that arguments and predicts observations.
Hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
Replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concepts
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototype
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category.
Algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error prone - use of heuristics.
Heuristics
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and sole problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
Insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
Fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
Mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
Functional Fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.
Availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
Overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
Farming
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
Belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
Belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions offer the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieved of information.
Flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Encoding
the processing of information into the memory system.
Storage
the retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
Sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Working memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten
Long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
Automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency.
Effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
Spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Visual encoding
the encoding of picture images.
Acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound
Semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning
Imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Mnemonics
memory aids
Chunking
Organizing items into familiar manageable units.
Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
Echoic memory
a momentary sensory of auditory stimuli
Long-term potentiation
an increase in a syanpe's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
Amnesia
the loss of memory.
Implicit memory
the retention independent of conscious recollection
Explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know
Hippocampus
a neutral center that is located in the limibc system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
Recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier.
Recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned.
Relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
Priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
Deja vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
State-dependent memory
when we learn something in one state and can only recall it in that state.
Mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory.
Source misattribution
forgetting or miscalling the source of a memory.
Repression
in psychoanalytical theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Language
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Phoneme
the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morpheme
the smallest unit that carries meaning
Grammar
a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language, also the study of meaning.
Syntax
the rules of combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
Babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months,the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds.
One-word stage
the stage in speech development from about ages 1 to 2 where a child speaks mostly in single words
Two-word stage
When babies start talking two word sentences.
Telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram.
Linguistic determination
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Receptive language
the ability to understand what's being said both to, and about us.
Aphasia
a neurological impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area.