Psychology Unit 1 Quiz terms
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusion.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that arguments and predicts observations.
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error prone - use of heuristics.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and sole problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
the tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
clinging to one's initial conceptions offer the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieved of information.
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
the processing of information into the memory system.
the retention of encoded information over time.
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency.
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
the encoding of picture images.
the encoding of sound
the encoding of meaning
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Organizing items into familiar manageable units.
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
a momentary sensory of auditory stimuli
an increase in a syanpe's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
the loss of memory.
the retention independent of conscious recollection
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know
a neutral center that is located in the limibc system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned.
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
when we learn something in one state and can only recall it in that state.
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
incorporating misleading information into one's memory.
forgetting or miscalling the source of a memory.
in psychoanalytical theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
the smallest distinctive sound unit.
the smallest unit that carries meaning
a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language, also the study of meaning.
the rules of combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
beginning at about 4 months,the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds.
the stage in speech development from about ages 1 to 2 where a child speaks mostly in single words
When babies start talking two word sentences.
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram.
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
the ability to understand what's being said both to, and about us.
a neurological impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area.
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