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Ch 16 & 17 APWH
Terms in this set (227)
Historians refer to the period from about 500-1500 ce as the ____ _____ of European history.
The middle ages falling between the classical era of ____ _____ and modern times.
During the early ___ ___ (500-1000) European people recovered from the many problems that played the later roman empire.
In doing so they laid the foundation of European _____
The two very different halves of medieval Christianity were the ______ in the eastern half of Mediterranean and the
________ states that succeeded the western roman empire after its collapse.
The byzantine empire was a direct ______ of roman empire.
It inherited the most _______ regions of roman empire.
As a centralized imperial state like the Abbasid or Tang and Song dynasties in china, the byzantine empire dominated the _____ _____ and _____ _____ regions.
eastern Mediterranean, black sea
Meanwhile lands to the west fell under the control of invading people who dismantled the western part of roman empire and established a series of ______states.
Both the byzantine empire and European states to the west inherited Christianity from roman empire and rulers of both regions promoted Christianity as a _____ and ____foundation for their rule.
After 8th century ce, _____ and _____ tensions increasingly complicated relations between two halves.
As a result, the regions developed different views on proper____ ______
The byzantine empire takes its name from _____, a modest market town and fishing village that occupied a sight of enormous strategic significance.
Its major advantage was it strategic position on the ______, the region between black and Mediterranean Sea.
It was chosen by emperor ______ of roman empire as the sight of a new capital city.
Constructed by Constantine it allowed the imperial court to keep watch on the ______ empire in Persia
It was built because the eastern half was wealthier than western half and it allowed the imperial court to also keep watch on Germanic tribes on ______ river.
Years later when the byzantine state stood by itself no longer part of a roman empire its most important political feature was its tightly ____ _____under a powerful emperor
______, the capital of this new empire grew rapidly.
The mixture of secular and religious authorities that marked emperor Constantine reign as well as future Byzantine emperors is known as ______
Constantine didn't claim divine status however he claimed divine ____.
Historians used the term ______to refer to the system in which the emperor has a mixture of political and religious authority.
He ruled over the government and he appointed the _____ leader
Following Constantine's example, Byzantine emperors presented themselves as _____rulers
Dressed in magnificent silk robes of ____ ____, a color reserved for imperial use only
When approaching the emperor at the court, visitors would prostrate themselves __times and then kiss his hands and feet before standing and speaking
The most important of the early byzantine emperors was _____ (527-565 ce).
He was an energetic worker known to his people as the ______ emperor.
His wife _____ was an invaluable advisor.The two ruled together.
Before marrying Justinian, Theodora was a ____ ____ artist
Like Constantine, Justinian spent significant resources on the imperial capital ______.
His most notable construction project was the church of ____ _____(holy wisdom).
The Hagia Sophia was the magnificent church of _____
Justinian's most important and long lasting political achievement was the codification of ____ ____
He ordered the systematic review of roman law and issued the ____ _____ _____(body of the civil law).
Corpus Iuris Civilis
____ _____, as it was called, influenced civil law codes in most of Europe, Japan, and parts of US.
It won recognition as the definitive ____ of roman law.
Between 533-565 byzantine forces gained control over former parts of the ____ ____ (Italy, Sicily, much of northwestern Africa, and southern Spain)
However, they were unable to sustain long term occupation of those areas and shortly after Justinian's death byzantine forces abandoned _____.
Constantinople was a magnificent city. Its wealth attracted many _____
Shortly after ______ death, Arab warriors overran portions of the byzantine empire
Muslim forces reached the city and subjected Constantinople to 2 ____ _____ (674-678 and 717-718).
Byzantine forces were able to resist these advances because of advanced ____ ___
They used a weapon known as "____ ____".
It was similar to a modern day____ ____
Eventually Constantinople recovered from these attacks and Byzantine empire began a resurgence which was the result of what was called the ____ _____
This was where a general was given _____ and ____ control over an imperial province.
Because of the expansion of ___, the Byzantine empire was smaller but more manageable
Armies raised under the ____ ____were more effective and managed to retake some of the lost territory.
After the collapse of western roman authority, Germanic tribes established ___ ___ throughout western Europe.
Roman imperial power had ended in 476ce with invasion of the Germanic general ____
The Germanic tribe that played the most important role in establishing the foundations of European development were the ____.
In the 8th century, an aristocratic clan known as the _____ extended Frank power.
They took their name from its founder ___ ____
He was known as ____ the ____
Charles the hammer.
He defeated an army of Muslims that had come up from Spain in the battle of ___.
The Frankish kingdom reached it highpoint under Mortal's grandson Charles the Great or _____ (768-814).
He possessed enormous energy and although barely _____ he was quite intelligent.
Charlemagne maintained diplomatic relations with the Abbasid empire under ____ ____ ____
Harun al Rashid
Even though Charlemagne spent much of his time traveling around his empire he did establish a capital at _____
Charlemagne extended his authority as far south as Rome; he instituted the ____ ____ (end boy of lord ruler); he actively supported the popes
The Missi Dominici was created to bring the counts under ____control.
Charlemagne hesitated to call himself ____ because it might be interpreted as a direct challenge to the authority of Byzantine emperors.
However, on a visit to the pope on Christmas day in year 800, pope leader proclaimed Charlemagne emperor and presented him with an ____ ____
Charlemagne only surviving son was _____ the ____.
Louis the Pious
He succeeded his father and held the empire ____
After Louis death, his 3 sons fought over control and the empire was split into __ parts.
The disunity and eternal invasions particularly by the ____ brought the Carolingians empire to an end
Three groups of invaders rated the Frankish empire; from the south came ____ who rated towns and churches along the Mediterranean; from the east came the ____, they were descendants of the Huns who had settled in what is now Hungary; from the north came the _____.
Muslims, Magyars, Vikings
The Vikings began an era of expansion due to population growth as a result of increased ____ ____
They built rugged shallow draft boats with ___ and
____which enabled them to navigate open ocean and rivers
sails and oars
The Vikings goal was simply to ____ __ _____
rate and plunder.
Constantinople was rated at least___ times in the 9th and 10th century by Vikings.
The Carolingians empire was the ____ ____ of these invasions
The byzantine empire however was a ___ ___ ____ power house
military and economic
The theme system made land available to ___ in return for military service.
The ____ was the Byzantine gold coin that became the standard currency throughout the Mediterranean
Agricultural surpluses supported _____ in the cities of the empire.
One of the biggest reason for increased agricultural production in all of Europe was the introduction of a ___ ____.
____ _____became a major contributor to the Byzantine economy
Byzantium drew enormous wealth simply by controlling ____ that passed through its territory
As they prospered western Europe struggled to find its ____ ____????
The Byzantine empire had large cosmopolitan cities and was probably the worlds most ___society.
Wealthy families had enormous places. In the 5th century Constantinople had ____mansions and ____palaces
4388 mansions and 14 palaces
Upper class women generally wore ___ to discourage attention of outsiders
Like the romans they had many ___ and entertainment ___
Western Europe in contrast was a ____ society.
Historians used the term ____ to characterize the political and social order of medieval Europe
It was system involving a hierarchy of ____ and _____
lords and vassals.
Lords provided grants of land in exchange for ____ and ____ _____
loyalty and military service.
In the absence of central authority, such as an emperor, local lords had their ____armies
In medieval society political order and power was vested in the hands of ____ ____
The most important relationship in feudalism was between the _____ and ____
lord and retainer.
Local peasants also had to continue ____ to the local lord in addition to military service.
Peasants were sometimes given ____ ___ ____ to provide for themselves
land with tools
During the 5th and 6th century _____ ____ took a toll in both eastern and western Europe.
The population dropped from 36 million in 200 to about ___ ____ in 300
By the year 1000 the population of the 2 provinces of Christianity rose to about ___ ____
As years passed tensions and conflicts between ___ ___ ___ increased.
popes and patriarch
The individual most responsible for giving the roman church and independent horse was ____ ____ ____
Pope Gregory 1st.
In the absence of the backing of an emperor, he ____ local resources in the defense of Rome and other cities.
The patriarchs of Constantinople were powerful officials but they didn't enjoy the _____ of the popes.
The patriarchs were appointed by the _____ so they under his authority
The pope had no such ____ figure
Emperor Leo the 3rd of the Byzantine empire began the ___ ____ ____ of _____ which was the destruction of statues and images of religious figures (717-741 ce)
divisive ecclesiastical policy of Iconoclasm
There was great _____ and apposition to this.
Among the factors contributed to the spread of Christianity especially in Europe was the rise of ______
This involved the building of _____ in area for especially devout individuals to lead especially holy lives.
They drew people from surrounding area because the locals saw them as holy men with a special _____ to god.
These individuals in the monasteries led very _____
Each community ____ and _____
rules and procedures.
Gradually rules were ____
___ ____ of _____ played a key role in the rise of Monasticism by establishing regulations and standards for monasteries
Saint Basil of Caesarea
His sister _____ ______ provide guidance for religious life of women in convict.
Byzantine authorities sent missionaries to Slavic lands to convert the _____
The most famous of the missionaries were ___ ____ and ____ ____
Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril.
They devised an alphabet known as ______ alphabet for the previously illiterate Slavic people
It was adapted from the _____ alphabet.
Although the church in Constantinople and the one in Rome professed the same Christian doctrine, tensions increased and rivalry to become the ultimate ____ led to a split.
In 1054 the pope in Rome and the patriarchs in Constantinople mutually ___ ____ each other.
This was known as the great ____
From this moment on there would be no one Christian church instead there would be ____
One would be the ___ ____ church and the other the ___ ____ so to this day western Europe is mostly roman catholic and eastern Europe is eastern orthodox.
roman catholic, eastern orthodox
As Christianity spread to Slavic lads the city of ____ in what is now Ukraine played an important role in it spread.
This occurred in the year 989 with the conversion of ___ ____ who ruled Kiev and the surrounding area.
in the year 802 Harun al Rashid from Abbasid empire gave Charlemagne an elephant as a gift named ___ __ ___
Abu al Abbas
The nomadic people of central Asia were _____ who kept herds of animals, horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and camels
They follow ___ ____ that took account of the seasons and local climate conditions
They lived mostly off the ___, ____, and _____ of their animals
meat, milk, and hides
The ____ of the climate and the nomadic lifestyle limited the development of human societies
5.The environment of central Asia does not receive rainfall to support large scale ____
The following are limitations on their development
The ____ of the climate
The _____ lifestyle of the population
The absence of large-scale ___ _____
Limited potential for large-scale ____
aridity, nomadic, craft production, agriculture
Both Mongol and Turkish people used tents called ____ for shelter. They were easily assembled and taken down.
The largest empire of all time was created by the____
However, their ____ neighbors began to expand from their home territory at an earlier date.
Nomads usually were anxious to seek ____ ____ with settled people
Because of their mobility and their familiarity with large regions of central Asia nomadic people were ideally suited to organize and lead ____ that crossed central Asia
Nomadic Turkish tribes made use of ____ an alcoholic drink made from fermented horse milk
The class structure of nomadic societies normally produced a fluid breakdown into _____ and ____, the two class of nomads
The noble ____ was thus very fluid with many opportunities for rising and falling
Women enjoyed much ___ ____ than women in settled agricultural societies
Women held considerable ____in nomadic societies
The earliest religion of the Turkish people was _____
Over the years different Turkish people followed different religions. Among them, ____, ____, ____, ____ and _____
Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Islam, and Manichaeism
Today, most Turkish people follow ____
One religion that was never popular among them was ____
In the tenth century, Turks living near the ______empire began to convert to Islam
Turkish expansion took place when leaders began to organize large groups under one ruler, a _____
Khans rarely ruled directly but rather through the leaders of ___ _____
So Turkish people never formed a single ______ group
They also never created ___ ____ until many centuries later
Nomadic peoples military might was based on their ____ forces
Few armies were able to resist the ____ and_____ of well-organized nomadic warriors
mobility and discipline
Around the tenth century, Turkish nomads began to seize the wealth of settled societies and build states large numbers of ____ ____ served in the Abbasid army
They rose in ____ and ____ until they basically took over
power and influence
In the last two centuries of the Abbasid state, real authority lay in the hands of ____ and ____
32. The term Sultan means ______
Led by Saljuk Turks, Turkish people began migrating into _____
In the year 1071, won an important victory over the Byzantines at ______ in Eastern Anatolia
Following that victory, Turkish groups began migrating and entering Anatolia at ____
The peasants living in Eastern Anatolia resented their Byzantine overlords and welcomed the Saljuks as ____
___ ___ ____ led Turks in Afghanistan on raids into Northern India
Mahmud of Ghazni
His incursion into India in the eleventh century was inspired by his desire for ____
As time passed, Mahmud's successors began to impose permanent rule over the ____ (Northwest India)
By the thirteenth century, the Turkish ___ ___ ____ruled over northern India
sultanate of Delhi
Mahmud of Ghazni was an enemy of ___ and ____ and encouraged conversion to Islam
Buddhism and Hinduism
During the early thirteenth century, ____ ____, united the various Mongol tribes into a powerful alliance
He was born with the name of _____
He rose to power as a young man he made an alliance with a powerful clan leader and displayed great personal courage in battle along with _____ to his allies
In an effort to strengthen Mongol fighting forces, Chenggis Khan formed new military units with no ___ _____
At its height, his army was as large as ______ troops
The ____ was the most important institution of the Mongol state
The Mongols relied on an army with outstanding _____skill and their skills in ___ ____
equestrian , shooting arrows
Mongol armies sometimes traveled up to __ miles a day
In order to surprise an enemy, Mongols understood the ____ ____ of warfare
Sometimes cities would _____ at their mere presence
In those cases, the Mongols would spare their lives and provide generous treatment for ____ and other skilled workers
Chenggis Khan extended Mongol rule to____ ____
Mongol armies invaded the ____ kingdom (Northern China), eventually capturing their capital and renaming it ______(city of the khan)
Chenggis Khan never established a ___ ____in the lands he ruled
By the year 1220, the Mongols had established control over ___ ____
While part of his army was taking over northern china, Chenggis led another force into ____, rule by a successor of the Saljuks
This _____ leader tried to have Chenggis assassinated
The following year, ___ ____ led his army to seek revenge
They wrecked destruction on the conquered land, destroying buildings and massacring hundreds of thousands, even destroying the ___ ____ ____ that sustained agriculture
Kanat irrigation system
Chenggis Khan's death touched off a ___ ___ ___ among his sons and grandsons
struggle for power
In central Asia as well as others parts, the empire was eventually divided into ___ regional empires
The ____ ___ ruled central Asia
In China, Khubilai Khan, Chenggis' grandson, ruled and proclaimed a new dynasty, the ___
In Persia, the Mongols established the ____
In Russia, the Khanate of the ___ ___
In China, Mongol rule was characterized by the separation between ____ and ____
Mongols and Chinese
The Mongols outlawed _____between Mongols and Chinese, as well as forbidding the Chinese from learning the Mongol language
They even demanded that Chinese men wear their ____ in a certain way to easily identify them as Chinese
It was at this time of rule by Khubilai Khan that the European traveler ___ ____ arrives and spends 20 years at his court
Many top jobs were given to _____
Marco Polo was even named ______ of a city
Khubilai Khan's military and imperial pursuits had little success when he tried to conquer ___, ___, ____ and ___
Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, and Japan
Mongol rule in Persia was very different than in _____
The Mongols settled and simulated into ____ life
They named many Persians as ___ and ____
ministers and governors
Although the early Mongol rulers of Persia continued with their Shamanistic religion, they tolerated the other religions and gradually gravitated toward ____
In 1295, the ___ ____ (a Mongol ruler) converted to Islam, prompting others to do the same
During the period of Mongol domination, ___ ____ ____ became much less risky
long distance trade
In Russia, the Mongols dominated under the name of the ___ ____ from the 13th to the 15th centuries
However, Mongol rule in Russia was also different. It was characterized by ___ _____ until the Russians overthrew the Mongols and established their independence
In Persia, the government went into decline for two reasons: they ____ excessively, thus producing more ___ ____, which many refused to accept
overspent, paper money
The other reason was the death of ____ ____
As in Persia, there were economic dimensions to Mongol decline. They continued to use ____ ___
However, they did not maintain adequate reserves of ___ or ____ to back to the paper money
gold or silver
The general population soon lost ___ in paper money
In addition, Mongol rulers also faced an outbreak epidemic disease, the ___ ____, killing millions and disrupting society
As a result, rebellions break out and in 1368, rebel forces capture the Mongol capital, ______, and the Mongols depart China
During the time that they ruled, the Mongols brought about greater integration among Eurasian people by the following means
Resettlement of conquered people with ____
The establishment an maintenance of a _____network
trade, skills, Diplomatic, courier
In the late fourteenth century, we see the rise of an important Turkish leader, _____
He weakened the Golden horde with his attacks and ___ ____ and also launched campaigns into Anatolia
The capital of his empire was ____
Like his hero, Chenggis Khan, Tamerlane was a ____, not a governor
He didn't create imperial administration, but he ruled through ____ ____
After the Mongol conquest of Persia, large numbers of Turks migrated from central Asia to the _____ and beyond to Anatolia.
The ____ had already ceased territory from the Byzantines
Among the Saljuks was a leader named _____ who controlled a small area in Anatolia
He declared his independence from the Saljuks and went on a series of attacks against the Byzantines. He attracted many followers who came to be known as ____
During the 1350s, they gained considerable ____, including parts of southeast Europe
The Ottomans continue their attacks with future leaders in Constantinople and 1453 ____ ____ the ____ known as Mehmed the conqueror captured Constantinople and gave it the Turkish name of _____
Sultan Mehmed the second, Istanbul
So the Ottoman Turks started by Osman would eventually defeat the _____ empire and bring it to an end after 1000 years
The central Asian capital of the Mongols was ____
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