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Questions on Review Guide
Terms in this set (31)
Explain how the use of anatomical terms is more effective at explaining position rather than the use of directions.
it provides a more exact area that people who know the vocabulary can all relate to.. directional terms are often subjective
Identify the 11 different body systems in terms of organs and functions.
Explain how a negative feedback system differs from a positive feedback. Give an example of each
in a negative feedback system, the goal is to return to normal whereas in a positive, the goal is to stray from normal... neither is better than the other
ex: positive-childbirth...hormones are released to allow for uterus contractions
ex: negative- pancreas releasing insulin to reduce glucose levels
Give several advantages to cell
specialization; several disadvantages.
Explain how the shape of epithelial tissue is related to its function
Describe the process by which
endocrine glands release their sections. How does this differ from the method used by exocrine glands?
Endocrine secretes directly into the blood where as exocrine secretes through ducts (tear ducts) or glands (sweat glands)
Give the three general functions
of connective tissue.
protection, support, binding together other body tissues
Describe the structure of bone. How does this structure provide for the function of protection and support?
hallow for the most part in the center, making them light enough to be moved by muscle
they have the ability to grow thanks to the epiphyseal plates
If looking at a slide of muscle tissues, what would you look for to identify each of the three different types of muscle tissue?
cardiac: striations, branches, one nuclei
skeletal: striations, multinucleate, long, skinny
smooth: no striation, one nuclei, spindle shaped
Give the functions of nervous tissue
relay the action potential throughout the cell
How does tissue repair by means of regeneration differ from that by means of fibrosis? Which one is more likely to cause the formation of a scar?
regeneration: replacement of destroyed tissue by the same types of cells
fibrosis: repair of destroyed tissue using dense fibrous connective tissue which forms scar tissue
Give an advantage to the formation of scar tissue; a disadvantage.
advantage: it is able to replace that tissue that could otherwise not be replaced
disadvantage: leaves a scar
Why are bones classified by composition and by shape?
the body's bones can be broken down into specific groups based on their comp. or shape, allowing for easier identification
Explain how the internal structure of an adult long bone is suited to its function of support.
there is an epiphyseal line in an adult bone which stops it from growing any longer
Describe the microscopic anatomy of a compact bone. How do the osteocytes receive the nourishment they need for
Explain "action potential". How can ions be considered "electricity"?
What effects does the Action Potential have on the motor neuron terminal?
Where is the ACh stored before it is released? Where does it go once
What effect does ACh have on the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber?
What must happen to the ACh on the Receptor proteins of the sarcolemma once the fiber has contracted?
Explain the role of Ca++ on muscle contraction. Where does this Ca++ come from?
How is the Action Potential carried deep into the muscle fiber from the sarcolemma?
Explain what happens to the following when the muscle fiber contracts:
a). I band
b). bare zone
c). A band
d). myosin heads
Identify the two ways in which a graded response can be produced.
Explain the difference between a fused or complete tetanus contraction and an unfused or incomplete tetanus contraction.
When the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply, what phase of cellular respiration do the muscle cells shift into? What is the waste product they produce, and what is the effect of this waste produce upon the cells?
Explain the difference between endurance exercise and resistance exercise.
In addition to the benefits to the muscles themselves, what other benefits to the body come from regular exercise?
Identify 10 different types of movement produced by muscle acting upon joints. Be prepared to demonstrate the different types of movement.
Muscles receive their names in several different ways. Give five of these ways plus one representative muscle for each example.
Explain how the prime mover, synergist, and antagonist interact with each other to produce body movement.
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