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Graphic Design: History of Graphic Design Part 1
Terms in this set (96)
graphic symbols used as ornament and decoration design.
what did the ancient Egyptians used motifs for?
derived from native plants, animals, and objects to communicate with one another.
why are motifs important?
because they give people an idea of an historic culture's lifestyle and history and in some cases their beliefs.
timeline of design movements
Arts and crafts: 1876-1915
Art Nouveau: 1900-1915
Art deco: 1921-1929
Doo wop: 1950-1955
Swiss style: 1950-1960
Pop art: 1951-1959
what are some characteristics of Victorian fashion designers?
exaggerated, overdone, and fussy
what did Victorian style reflect?
It reflects how women were adorned in a variety of materials, colors, and patterns during this era
what influence Victorian design?
The most recognizable characteristic of Victorian design is its over-the-top clutter, which was influenced by the very busy and decorative designs from the Medieval era (AD 400-AD 1450).
Name the characteristics of Victorian Era.
1. busy pages with little white space
2. eclectic yet balanced layouts
3. flourishes (decorative extensions on serifs and type)
4. gradations in tonal values
5. type within banners
6. variety of decorative fonts set on undulating (wavy) baselines
what two type of designs got started in the Victorian Era?
Packaging design and marketing design
what happened in mid 1800s with packaging design and marketing design?
Prior to the mid-1800s, there was little need for packaging or marketing design; everything was custom ordered and delivered to stores in bulk. Huge barrels and crates were insulated with wood shavings, paper, or cardboard and were used to package goods.
1. famous Victorian designer
2. considered a celebrity because of significant contributions to the field of editorial and political cartooning.
3. During Andrew Jackson's presidency in the 1830s, he illustrated Jackson as a donkey because he thought the president was as stubborn as a mule
4. he showed the Republican party as an elephant defeating Tammany Hall candidates. These symbols stuck and are now symbols of the Democratic and Republican political parties.
1. furniture designer
2. When he was 23, he opened his own workshop. He mastered the art of bending solid beech wood into chair frames.
3. His furniture was not traditional to the popular furniture of the Victorian era but has become exceedingly popular since
4. created model 18
5. the company still produces furniture today and is run by his great grandson
inexpensive and easily mass produced as a kit of parts and, therefore, easy to transport
is the process of capturing a potential customer's attention just long enough to change his mind
is basically a middleman between the advertisers and the publications in which they are advertising
who was the first American advertising agent in the Victorian Era?
the manufacture of large quantities of the same product
art and crafts movement
a rebellious response to industrialization and mass production
what hosting event started in 1750s?
large, international expositions
what are some new technologies and equipment shown at world's fairs?
sewing machines, farm equipment, and cars
what would local artists do during the world fairs to get their names out to the world?
by attending the event and showing their works at the event
the cities that hosted the event would do what?
prepare for the extravagant event by designing and building miniature cities to show off the latest architectural styles and technological advances
what was the significant of the Eiffel Tower?
was built t in Paris for the Exposition Universelle in 1889
when was the first Ferris wheel erected and what other technology was shown at the Chicago World Fair?
at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 and other technologies such as electric sidewalks, the fax machine, the electric chair, and the first electric light bulb
the space needle was highlight of what world fair?
a term used to refer to the influence Japanese motifs had on nineteenth century Arts and Crafts interest.
what are some common Japanese motifs?
include flowers, cranes, and other birds.
what did the art and crafts movement focus on?
keeping the design free from distraction and being true to material and craftsmanship
arts and craft designers admired what of the medieval era?
arts and crafts designers believed what design?
powerful influence in society
arts and craft designers were offended by the Victorian era because of what?
playfulness and impersonal industrialization
what are characteristics of arts and crafts style?
borders, geometrical organic, muted colors, order and symmetry, and repetition through geometric patterns
what did the designers in the arts and crafts era preferred when it came to materials?
natural and organic that had innate beauty
amber in color, has natural shine, and brittle in appearance
who began the arts and crafts movement in England in 1880?
who referred to Victorian as "wonderfully ugly"?
who strived to design more minimal, natural design that emphasized communication rather than decoration?
who was a Scottish designer and architect?
who was responsible for bringing arts and crafts style to Scotland?
whose main goal was to bring craftsmanship by hand back into the design field?
who introduce arts and crafts design style to America?
who was a furniture maker and architect?
who worked in their uncle's chair shop and took a trip to England where he was inspired by the clean, simple design works by William Morris?
in 1899, who opened workshop in Eastwood, New York from he and his brother produced a variety of mission style furniture that reflected this true principles of functional, plain, simple, durable, and high quality material?
who marked their work with, "Als ik han" which means to the best of my ability?
who moved to Chicago to help rebuild the city after the fire destroyed several square miles of the city?
who created a partnership with Alder after he worked for William Jenny?
who was known for creating lighting as a decorative feature rather than a functional element?
who was a strong believer that although a design involves form, or visual appeal, and function, the communication of design should prevail over the design's form
who was American most famous architect?
who established the hearth, or fireplace, as being the center of the home, the most important space in the home. In all of his home designs, the hearth is the central focus.
involves designing structures to blend into their surrounding environment.
who started organic architecture?
The exterior of the Women's Building was coincidentally designed by the first female architect to graduate from MIT,
what movement ended with World War I because it was seen as a European style?
arts and craft movement
what movement started in 1890 and lasted for 25 years?
how did Art Nouveau get its name?
it was named after an German art dealer (Siegfried "Samuel" Bing) who mostly dealt with Japanese art which influence Art Nouveau era. His gallery was called Maison de l' Art Nouveau which means "House of New Art)
what does Art Nouveau encompasses of?
architecture, interior design, furniture design, textile design, art, and lighting.
what are characteristics of Art Nouveau?
asymmetry, emphasis on the female form, contrast between thick and thin in type and lines, and organic forms that provide flowing energy
what are the motifs found during the Art Nouveau?
butterfly, moth, dragonfly, sunflower, and thistle
what is a thistle?
a prickly composite plant with purple flower heads
what motif did females during the Art Nouveau refer to?
what was the most popular medium during the Art Nouveau?
who was considered the father of modern poster?
Art Nouveau was found in city France?
what would be an example of Art Nouveau in France architecture?
the Grand Palace; the interior has curved, organic lines and fluid energy of the design
who was an extremely famous American artist and designer who traveled a lot and became interested in medieval and Roman glass?
Louis Comfort Tiffany
who is the best known for his work in stained glass during the Art Nouveau movement in the United States?
Louis Comfort Tiffany
who became a very successful interior designer and earned commissions from mark Twain, Cornelius Vanderbilt and the White House?
Louis Comfort Tiffany
who was well known for glass light fixtures?
Louis Comfort Tiffany
what were the 3 goal Bauhaus live and work by?
combine everyone together for one common goal
elevate the status of crafts to an equal of fine art and be self sufficient by making and selling its own products
what were the characteristics of Bauhaus design?
uncluttered, clean, and orderly
_________________________________ was a strong supporter of the Bauhaus philosophy. "less is more"
Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe
_____________________ was another extremely influential designer of the Bauhaus era. he created cantilever chair called Cesca chair. cantilever chair is one with no back legs . able to upholster his chairs with textiles by other students at the Bauhaus
what was Bauhaus first sign of trouble?
voters determined it was too cosmopolitan and that the school had begun to endanger local craftsmen because of their new ties with public industry
what are the Egyptomania motifs that influenced art deco era?
scarab, lotus flower, papyrus leave, pyramids, tomb entries, King Tut, and various hieroglyphics
what are the Grecian motifs that were often used in art deco design?
female forms, urns, flower baskets, and colonnades
what are the African motifs that were often used in art deco design?
masks , lilies, gazelles, and lightning bolts
what Asian motifs was used in art deco?
stylized organic forms, geometric motifs, bonsai trees, and cranes
what Mesoamerican motifs common used in art deco?
ziggurat, Aztec pyramids, sunrises, and sunbursts
what motif represent speed, transportation, and communication?
The ___________ motif represented the dawn of a new age
what are the characteristics of Art deco design?
cubist-style illustrations, decorative sans serif type, emphasis on female form, repeated patterns of rigid geometric forms, and use of pastel colors
_________ was a movement in art started by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in 1908.
Cubist artworks contain images that are broken up and put back together using geometric forms.
Cubism is an extremely ___________, geometric style that transformed the decorative arts during its time.
Cubist artworks contain images that are ______ _____ and put back together using geometric forms.
Italian designer _________________ __________________ was a famous poster designer during the art deco period. He began work as a caricaturist but made a name for himself during the Art Deco movement by designing posters.
Leonetto Cappiello (1875-1942)
______________________ ______________ mastered ivory and ebony inlays
__________ __________ a famous fashion designer, was extremely important to women's culture during the Art Deco movement; implemented men's fashions into clothing for women.
Coco Chanel (1883-1971),
____________ ______________ was a female furniture designer
_________ ________________ introduced skyscraper furniture
___________ ________ designed the famous art deco ocean liner, the Normandie
______________ __________________ designed art deco glass and jewelry and participated in the world's exposition by designing a glass fountain.
_____________ ________________was well known for his art deco textiles.
American architect, ____________ ___________ ____________ graduated from the Pratt Institute and found a home in Miami Beach, Florida, where he became one of the most important architects of the area. The rich, vibrant pastel colors he used on his hotel, restaurant, and shop designs remain a staple in Florida architecture even today.
Henry Hohauser (1895-1963)
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