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Glossary terms from Chapter 9 of Nelson Psychology - VCE Units 3 & 4.
Terms in this set (66)
A data-gathering method that involves testing a hypothesis by means of careful measurement and controlled observation.
A testable prediction of the relationship between two variables.
Any event, condition or characteristic that changes (varies) or can be made to change.
The people or animals whose behaviour, characteristics or responses are investigated and measured as part of an experiment.
The observed facts that constitute the results of an experiment.
The actual data collected from a study, before it is sorted or analysed.
A decision or judgement about the meaningfulness of the results of the study.
Statistics that allow an experimenter to make inferences and conclusions about data; they are often used to interpret results of a study.
A scientific research method that uses participants in a formal trial to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis.
A research method that involves gathering data under controlled conditions to test a hypothesis by exposing participants to a treatment and observing and measuring its effect.
In a controlled experiment, the group of participants exposed to the independent variable.
independent variable (IV)
The condition that an experimenter systematically manipulates (changes or varies) in order to gauge its effect on another variable (the dependent variable).
dependent variable (DV)
The condition in an experiment or aspect of the participant's behaviour that is affected by changes in the independent variable (IV); it is used as a measure of the IV's effect.
In a controlled experiment, the group of participants exposed to all conditions or variables except the independent variable.
A broad or general prediction about the direction of a relationship between variables in an experiment - i.e. whether the variables increase or decrease in relation to one another.
A hypothesis that operationalises the variables by precisely defining and describing how each variable is measured, and predicts the exact effect the IV is expected to have on the behaviour of the population from which the sample has been selected.
The larger group of research interest from which a sample in a research study has been drawn.
The group of participants in a research study selected from, and representative of, a population of research interest.
A variable defined or described in terms of the procedures used to observe and measure it.
In an experiment, a variable other than the IV that might cause unwanted changes in the DV.
An extraneous variable whose influence has been eliminated from an experiment so that it cannot affect results; it has been controlled.
An extraneous variable whose influence has not been eliminated from an experiment because the experimenter was not aware of it.
An uncontrolled variable that has had an unwanted effect on the DV and might get confused with the effect of the IV.
What participants' knowledge of the aim of the study causes them to behave in a way that is not normal for them; this affects the results of the study.
Establishing standards for administering a test and interpreting scores.
Individual differences in the personal characteristics of research participants that, if not controlled, can confound the results of the experiment.
When prior knowledge of a task or situation influences a participant's performance, which in turn influences the results of the experiment; also known as the practice effect.
A method used to control order effect, where half the participants in an experiment are exposed to the control condition first and the other half are exposed to the experimental condition first; this is then reversed in the second instance.
Changes in the participants' behaviour that are caused by the unintended influence of the experimenter rather than the IV.
A prediction that prompts people to act in a way that makes the prediction come true.
An experimental procedure where neither the experimenter nor the participants know which experimental condition the participants have been allocated to.
A fake treatment that has no active effect, such as a fake pill or injection.
Changes in behaviour caused by the belief that one has been exposed to a treatment that will affect them in some way.
An experimental procedure where participants do not know which experimental condition they have been assigned to, but the experimenter does.
An experimental design where participants are randomly allocated to either the experimental group or the control group.
An experimental design where participants are paired (matched) on the basis of similar characteristics that can influence the DV, with one pair being allocated to the experimental group and the other to the control group.
An experimental design method where the same group of participants makes up both the experimental and control groups.
Moral principles and codes of behaviour.
The individual rights of all participants that must be respected by the researcher, as outlined in ethical guidelines relating to psychological research.
A participant's right to privacy in terms of access, storage and disposal of information related to the research study in which they participated.
Participation whereby participants agree to take part in an experiment free from pressure or fear of negative consequences.
A participant's right to withdraw from a study or research at any time without experiencing any negative consequences.
Where a participant gives their written consent to participate in a study after being fully informed of the true nature and purpose of the experiment (where appropriate), any foreseeable risks and their rights before an experiment commences.
When information about the true purpose of a study is not given to participants before a study begins.
Informing participants of the true purpose of an experiment once it has ended; correcting mistaken attitudes or beliefs; providing the opportunity to gain information about the study; providing information about services to help with distress resulting from participation.
A sampling technique ensuring that every member of the population of interest has an equal chance of being selected for the sample being in the study.
A sampling technique that ensures the sample contains the same proportions of participants that are found in the population.
A form of stratified sampling involving random samples of each stratum being selected.
A sampling technique involving selection of participants because they are readily available to the researcher.
A procedure for assigning participants to either the experimental group or the control group in an experiment, ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of being allocated to either group.
Data that describe the changes in the quality of a behaviour; often accounts of personal attitudes or experiences, or descriptions of feelings.
Data collected through systematic and controlled methodology and presented in numerical form.
An in-depth, detailed study of all aspects of a single participant, group or event, usually undertaken to gain insight into a particular psychological phenomenon.
A method of data-collection that involves watching and recording the behaviour of another person(s) or animal(s) within a specific environment and drawing conclusions based on the recorded observations.
Changes in the behaviour of a person being observed caused by their awareness of the presence of an observer.
Bias in results of an observational study that occurs when an observer sees what he or she expects to see, or records only selected details of an observed behaviour.
A data-collection technique in which individuals are asked to freely express their attitudes (verbally or in writing) by answering questions.
A written set of standardised questions that can be administered face-to-face, by mail, by telephone or via the internet.
A form of qualitative data-collection where individuals are asked to comment on their attitude towards a particular issue(s).
Statistics used to describe, summarise, organise and analyse data.
measure of central tendency
A measure of the tendency for a majority of scores to fall in the mind-range of possible values.
A measure of central tendency found by adding up all the values and dividing the total by the number of values.
A measure of central tendency found by arranging scores from highest to the lowest, and selecting the score that falls in the middle.
A measure of central tendency found by selecting the most frequently occurring score in a group of scores.
A number obtained from inferential statistics that provides an estimate of how often experimental results could have occurred by chance alone; expressed as 'p-value'
A decision or judgement about whether results obtained from a sample are representative of the relevant population.
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