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The Eleven Principal Systems of the Human Body

Introduction to the Human Anatomy: The Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology by Gerard J. Tortora and Bryan Derrickson Chapter 1: Organization of the Human Body, Table 1.1 Components and Functions of the Eleven Principal Systems of the Human Body
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Integumentary system components
Skin and structures derived from it, such as hair, nails, and sweat and oil glands
Skeletal system components
All the bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages
Muscular system components
Specifically refers to skeletal muscle tissue, which is muscle usually attached to bones (other muscle tissues include smooth and cardiac).
Integumentary system functions
Helps regulate body temperature; protects the body; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; detects sensations such as touch, pressure, warmth, and cold
Skeletal system functions
Supports and protects the body, provides a specific area for muscle attachment, assists with body movements, stores cells that produce blood cells, and stores minerals and lipids (fats)
Muscular system functions
Participates in bringing about body movements, maintains posture, and produces heat
Nervous system components
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs such as the eyes and ears
Nervous system functions
Regulates body activities through nerve impulses by detecting changes in the environment, interpreting the changes, and responding to the changes by bringing about muscular contractions or glandular secretions
Endocrine system components
All glands and tissues that produce chemical regulators of body functions called hormones
Endocrine system functions
Regulates body activities through hormones transported by the blood to various target organs
Cardiovascular system components
Blood, heart, and blood vessels
Cardiovascular system functions
Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells, and helps regulate acidity, temperature, and water content of body fluids; blood components help defend against disease and mend damaged blood vessels
Lymphatic system and immunity components
Lymphatic fluid and vessels; spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils; cells that carry out immune responses (B cells, T cells, and others).
Lymphatic system and immunity functions
Returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease-causing microbes
Respiratory system components
Lungs and air passageways such as the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (wind pipe), and bronchial tubes leading into and out of them
Respiratory system functions
Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acidity of body fluids; air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sound
Digestive system components
Organs of gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus; also includes accessory digestive organs that assist in digestive processes, such as salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Digestive system functions
Achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates solid wastes
Urinary system components
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Urinary system functions
Produces, stores, and eliminates urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps regulate acidity of bodily fluids; maintains body's mineral balance; helps regulate red blood cell production
Reproductive system components
Gonads (testes or ovaries) and associated organs: uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females, and epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, and penis in males. Also, mammary glands in females.
Reproductive system functions
Gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism and release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes. Mammary glands produce milk.