96 terms

AP US History CH1 - The Collision of Cultures

Brinkley - American History 14th Ed. Newman/Schmalbach - United States History: Preparing For The Advanced Placement Examination 10th Ed.
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land bridge
Probable method of arrival for the first people to arrive in the Americas. Connected Siberia & Alaska around 40,000 years ago. Now submerged under the Bering Sea.
Sioux
a member of a group of North American Indian peoples who spoke a common language and who ranged from Lake Michigan to the Rocky Mountains, An American tribe most common of the great plains of the American west
Pawnee
Native American tribe of present day Kansas and Nebraska first visited by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541. Nothing much is mentioned of them until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when successive incursions of Spanish, French and English settlers attempted to enlarge their possessions. The tribes however tended to make alliances as and when it suited them. Believed to have numbered over 10,000 in 1780, by 1900 only 600 remained due to war, smallpox and cholera.
Pueblo uprising
Pueblos were Native American tribe in the Southwest, lived in multistoried apartment like houses. They started a revolt against Spanish (led by Popé), because he was fed up with the way Spanish treated them. Caused by:
- Spanish kept them from doing tribal rituals
- Instability from a drought and attacks from Apaches
Adena
Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 BC to 200 BC, in a time known as the early Woodland Period. It refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. They lived in a variety of locations, including: Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, and parts of Pennsylvania and New York.
Hopewell
Native American culture which centered in the Ohio valley from 200 to 500 C.E.; known for earthen burial and defensive mounds. (snake mound in Illinois)
Mississippian
The last and most complex of the mound builder societies, inhabiting the Ohio and the Mississippi River valleys from about AD 700 into the 1500s.
Maya
After the decline of the Olmecs, the Maya settled in the rain forests of Guatemala and Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. Mayan civilization reached its peak between A.D. 300 and 900.
Incas
Centered in Peru. They ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores (Francisco Pizarro) ended their empire in the 15th century.
Aztec
also known as MEXICA who established an empire in Mexico that was overthrown by Cortes (a Spanish Conquistador) in 1519,
- built their capital city at Tenochtitlan;
- militaristic society;
- Grew corn.
- Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices.
Christopher Columbus
An Italian who had been sailing for Portugal but was sponsored by SPAIN to leadexpeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization.
New World
the name that Europeans used to refer to the Americas
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian cartographer that sailed under the Spanish flag repeated Columbus' initial attemp to sail west to Asia; he explored the coast of Africa thinking that it was Asia; he made his next voyage commissioned by Portugal and sailed along the coast of S. America concluding that it could not be Asia; his discoveries were published and the new continent was named after him
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
A Spaniard who, in 1513, crossed (walked) the Isthmus of Panama and reached an ocean (the Pacific).
Ferdinand Magellan
- Portuguese mariner in the service of Spain
- Sailed around southern tip of SA (Strait of Magellan)
- killed in the Philippines but one of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.,
Hernan Cortes
led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. conquistador responsible for defeat of the Aztec Empire. captured Tenochtitlan. He had heard rumors of a great kingdom in the interior so he began to stroke inland. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the city down in 1521. Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City.
Francisco Pizzaro
a Spainish explorer and conquistador who conquered the Incas in the 1520s and claimed all the land from Panama to Peru for Spain
conquistadores
Spanish explorers who established Spain's initial supremacy in the New World. They sent ships loaded with gold & silver back to Spain from the New World. They increased the gold supply by over 500%, making Spain the richest & most powerful nation in Europe.
encomienda
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
asiento system
System in which the Spaniards brought captured African slaves to the New World to work; required the Spanish to pay a tax to their king on each slave they imported to the Americas.
John Cabot
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
Giovanni Verrazano
Italian navigator, who was commissioned by France to find a Northwest Passage leading through the Americas to Asia; explored part of North America's eastern coast, including New York harbor (France)
Jaques Cartier
The French monarchy sent him to North America to find northwest passage before the English. He claimed the St Lawrence River and eastern Canada for France. (1534)
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established the first permanent Fre settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
Father Jacques Marquette
French missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded St. Ignace, Michigan. Along with Louis Jolliet were the first non-native american to see and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River in 1673.
Robert de la Salle
was responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi river to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the beautiful river valley named Louisiana after his king Louis XIV in 1682.
Henry Hudson
English navigator who discovered the Hudson River, An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. He claimed present day New York and called it New Netherland. In 1610 he attempted to winter in the Hudson Bay but his crew mutinied and set him adrift to die (1565-1611)
joint stock company
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
Father Junipero Serra
The Spanish missionary who founded 21 missions in California, in 1769, he founded Mission San Diego, the first of the chain.
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
Captain John Smith
Admiral of New England, an English soldier, sailor, and author. This person is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Pocahontas
A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; her brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
royal colony
colony under the direct control of the English Crown
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Plymouth Colony
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Seperatists, in 1620. The Seperatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. The colony became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
separatists
Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
Pilgrims
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
Mayflower
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620
Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the area around present day Boston. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Great Migration
Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. Ended in 1642 when King Charles I effectively shut off emigration to the colonies with the start of the English Civil War.
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619. First elected legilative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia. Served as an early model of elected government in the New World.
Clovis People
10,000 years ago these peoples migrated from todays Siberia to what is now Alaska; the first actual people in the New world with tools and spears
Archaic Period
8000-2000 BCE
people were forced to rely more on gathering wild plants as their primary sources of food due to the dryer and warmer weather
agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
hunting & gathering
The process of living that involves traveling frequently in search of food.
Olmecs
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
Mexica
(also known as Aztecs): were a people of central Mexico; spoke Nahuatl language; built powerful Aztec empire that dominated Mesoamerica during the period from the mid-14th through the early 16th centuries.
Eskimo
a member of a people inhabiting the Arctic (northern Canada or Greenland or Alaska or eastern Siberia)
Cahokia
an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
Algonquin
a member of any of the North American Indian groups speaking a common language and originally living in the subarctic regions of eastern Canada
Muskogean
the third largest language group that includes the tribes in the Southernmost region of the eastern Seaboard: the Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and the Seminoles.
matrilineal
based on or tracing descent through the female line
mercantilism
an economic system used to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests, including its colonies, in order to accumulate wealth - primarily gold & silver
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
Bartholomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Pedro Cabral
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil
Ferdinand & Isabella
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. (p. 305)
smallpox
A Deadly disease that Europeans brought to the New World. It spreads rapidly and killed millions of Native Americans.
Spanish Conquest
the conquering of the Native Americans by the Spanish
Black Legend
Concept that Spanish conquerors merely tortured and murdered Indians, stole gold and infected them with smallpox, leaving nothing of benefit
Ordinances of Discovery
an order by the spanish king that banned the most brutal military conquets. this established American presence in the new world through colonization
catholic missions
-Established by Junipero Serra and Franciscan friars
-Viewed Indians as ignorant and undisciplined
-Wanted to convert Indians to Catholicism and become useful members of Spanish Empire
-Indians bribed by gifts and rituals
Indians were baptized as Catholics, taught Spanish, and stripped of their culture
St. Augustine
First spanish settlement on mainland North America in Florida 1565
Don Juan de Onate
was a Spanish conquistador who explored the areas of Mexico and what is now Texas and New Mexico in 1598. He was infamous for his cruelty to the Pueblo Indians. In the Battle of Acoma in 1599 he severed one foot of each Pueblo survivor.
New Mexico
Most populous and prosperous Spanish colony north of Mexico; colonists worked effectively with Natives to develop a flourishing agriculture; largest white settlement west of the Mississippi
Santa Fe
Served as capitol of the Spanish colonies in North America
Pueblo Revolt
This event, which occurred on August 10, 1680, in modern-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the most successful uprising against Spanish authority in the New World. The Native Americans took over the governor's residence as their own and remained there to protect their land. Spain was unable to reclaim its New Mexico colony for nearly 15 years.
Enclosure Movement
Wealthy Farmers converted community land from fields to private pastures (for sheep as their was a high demand for wool) and then fenced it off.
Many small farmers were forced into giving up farming and moving to the city for work in the factories.
Richard Hakluyt
English promoter of exploration. In 1584 he wrote A Discourse of Western Planting in which he pleaded for colonies to accomplish diverse objectives: to extend the reformed religion, to expand trade, to supply England's needs from her own dominions, and provide work for England's suplus of workers among various other reasons.
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Coureurs De Bois
(runners of the woods) French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America.
Seigneuries
Large French estates along the bank of the St. Lawrence river which helped to create the boundary line of French settlement before the Seven Years' War.
Iroquois
A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state, consisting of the SENECA, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA and MOHAWK.
Dutch West India Company
- 1500s and 1600s.
- The joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and in New Amsterdam, which later became New York.
- Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois.
- Instituted the patroon system, in which large estates were given to wealthy men who transported at least fifty families to New Netherland to tend the land (few seized the opportunity.)
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
English navigator who in 1583 established in Newfoundland the first English colony in North America, but decided to move to a better area and was killed in a storm on his way home
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, he sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
London Company
a joint-stock company chartered in 1606 and was responsible for founding the first permanent English settlement in America; Jamestown, Virginia in 1607
Plymouth Company
was an English joint stock company founded in 1606 by James I of England with the purpose of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
conquistador
A Spanish conqueror of the Americas
Francisco Pizarro
A Spanish conquistador and explorer. He conquered the Inca Empire in PERU.
Presidio
A Spanish fort
Lief Eriksson
Norwegian explorer, son of Erik the Red, was first European to explore the Americas.
Location of Spain on a World Map
Location of Portugal on World Map
Location of Caribbean on World Map
serfs
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merchant capitalists
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Chartered Companies
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to france an england in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the west indies colonies.
Mercantilism
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Puritan
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Plantation Model
First Established in Ireland; they were transplations of England Society in a foreign land to retain seperation from the natives
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